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1980–2000
Dominique Marshall

). Images had an immediacy which helped teachers work with younger children, who needed short activities. In the case of children between the ages of six and eight, working with visual media provided immediate sensual contact and experiences, whether by seeing and hearing and handling. For them, as for all young people, images could also be used in the important work of ‘recognition’, the acknowledgment of the ‘global in us’ ( Bédard et al. , 1991 : 10). ‘The child is very sensitive to shapes and colors. He is receptive to this type of simulation, and fascinated by

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Aid Industry and the ‘Me Too’ Movement
Charlotte Lydia Riley

at the turn of the century as ‘the new super brands’, has also shaped the treatment of this issue ( Wootliff and Deri, 2001 ). As INGOs are increasingly ‘super brands’, with global recognition and power, and budgets to match, it is unsurprising that their corporate instinct is to protect their ‘brand’ at all costs. This is compounded by the fact that INGOs gain their authority and agency not only through their perceived expertise – which might be very

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

be unevenly shared. The lesson here for community engagement during emergencies is that no ‘one size fits all’, that inflexible or top-down responses are not appropriate and that community engagement requires the fundamental recognition that within communities power and legitimacy are always contested resources. Effective community engagement requires a dynamic awareness of history, context and power that remains conscious of how legitimacy and authority

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

existing texts aimed at limiting the violence against the populations of Confederate states. Lieber acknowledged civilians in the war while explicitly denying them political recognition. In contrast, civilians caught up in international conflicts subject to the Geneva Conventions were ignored until 1949. While the codification of armed conflict, whether international or domestic, was inspired by a desire to limit the violence, it gave the generals – not surprisingly – the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Debates Surrounding Ebola Vaccine Trials in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Myfanwy James, Joseph Grace Kasereka, and Shelley Lees

continued influence of outsiders and their priorities. As Enria and Lees (2018 : 49) describe, the arrival of a new biomedical technology can ‘create a space for conversations that transcend the encounter’ between trial and participant, becoming a part of citizens’ everyday struggles for recognition. Biomedical interventions are not only entangled with political dynamics and understood in relation to them, but they also become new sites for articulating wider concerns about power, inequality

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

recognition, for Hayekian neoliberalism humans are held to be incapable of understanding society due to its alleged complexity. Fortuitously, however, the market compensates for human ignorance. The price mechanism functions like a computer and is able to achieve optimal resource allocation through its powers of spontaneous self-organisation. 7 A policy-exchange network managed by the Center for International Development at Harvard University. See: https://bsc.cid.harvard.edu/doing-development-differently . 8

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith

, 2010 ; Schulz, 2020 ; Schulz and Touquet, 2020 ; Touquet, 2018a ). The notion that little to no research exists is no longer valid. Yet in conjunction with this important recognition, many worrying and potentially damaging falsehoods about the characteristics, magnitude, consequences and responses to this violence are gaining traction as well. For example, evidence suggests that, while men and boys are more likely to be targeted for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Politics of Information and Analysis in Food Security Crises
Daniel Maxwell and Peter Hailey

be reluctant to admit that, even with major humanitarian funding, conditions continue to deteriorate. For humanitarian actors, famine is the dramatic manifestation of response failure ( Maxwell and Majid, 2016 ). With increasing recognition of the linkage between conflict and famine, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 2417 in 2018 that condemns both the use of starvation as a weapon and the denial of humanitarian access in conflict ( de Waal, 2018

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy and Victoria Russell

reasons, including alliances with communities, roots in civil society, recognition by peers, qualities and characters of members, principles, ethics and commitments and so on ( Calain, 2012 ). But at its core, humanitarian legitimacy comes from acting in a humanitarian way – by doing good, by acting our values. Providing care to people in danger will not prevent us from being attacked by authoritarian states or populist movements. In fact, the opposite, as this case shows

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

information with partners, coordination groups and other relevant actors ( Sphere Association, 2018 : 71). Conducting training for local service providers and providing documentation in local languages are also recommended. Numerous groups are engaged in projects to increase the quality and reach of crisis translation. For interpreting (the spoken act of translation), the InZone project demands recognition. 2 InZone has pioneered innovative approaches to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs