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Causal factors stimulating change
Joe McGrath

large fundraisers at prominent social events such as the ‘Galway Races’ where businessmen were allowed to buy access to the Taoiseach and other powerful politicians, presumably with a view to influencing policy (Irish Times, 13 April 2011: 14). Businessmen funded the personal lifestyles of senior politicians and in return were given the inside track on securing government contracts and other favours. There was also a complete lack of separation between regulators and big business. The remainder of this section analyses how a culture of corruption and cronyism became

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
Abstract only
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

financial markets in the UK, including the degree to which they conformed to the efficient markets hypothesis. It is generally believed that any financial system requires a degree of control exercised by a regulatory authority, which may or may not be the government. In any case the regulator will require enabling legislation defining its powers, even if it is not an arm of the

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Oonagh McDonald

Guidelines Further guidelines were issued in December 2006, with the focus this time on concentrations in commercial real estate lending and on sound risk management practices in particular. 10 The regulators had observed the increased concentration and that this added ‘a dimension of risk that compounds the risk inherent in individual loans, making the institutions more vulnerable to cyclical CRE markets’. 11 There should be a risk management framework to identify, monitor and control CRE concentration risks. The responsibilities

in Lehman Brothers
Masahiro Mogaki

: 95–6: see Table 6.1), which are widely disseminated as a consensus formulated by an international organisation, one can recognise that ‘To shield interventions from captured politicians and bureaucrats’ was Table 6.1  The merits and demerits of an independent regulator Merits: • guards against interventions from politicians and bureaucrats subject to regulatory capture • improved transparency • more stable regulation • better conditions for having expertise • possibility of improved accountability if an independent regulator has explicit objectives and a

in Understanding governance in contemporary Japan
Abstract only
Pennington, E. coli and disaster science
Ed Randall

future can be reduced, may be misplaced and will generally depend on the willingness of those in authority to accept the analysis and conclusions of the inquirers that they have appointed. The Wishaw inquiries It is important to point out that Pennington’s reliance on Blom-Cooper’s arguments does not mean, as we shall see later, that he considered that inspectors/ investigators/regulators could expect to operate without limits and without encountering severe difficulties, especially if their findings threatened to embarrass the politicians who had appointed them

in Food, risk and politics
Abstract only
Claudio M. Radaelli and Fabrizio De Francesco

, most importantly perhaps, on the change in the behaviour of policy-makers. Indeed, one of the main goals of better regulation is to change the culture of regulators. Turning to international organisations, the OECD defined better regulation in 1997 on the basis of the following principles: regulations should be necessary, efficient, effective, transparent and geared towards the public interest (OECD, 1997a: 193). The 1997 OECD study on regulation (OECD, 1997a) is innovative in two major ways. On the one hand, it extends the checklist approach to the identification of

in Regulatory quality in Europe
Masahiro Mogaki

privatisation of a state corporation monopoly had a significant impact on the telecommunications market. The former monopoly company (NTT)1 has remained dominant, yet this position has been challenged by emergent new entrants (new common carriers: NCCs). Regulatory functions were not assigned to a newly created independent regulator but to a government ministry, the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (MPT), which lacked experience and expertise in implementing this new task in its early stage (Tsuchiya 2003: 77). This chapter analyses the impact of this liberalisation

in Understanding governance in contemporary Japan
Claudio M. Radaelli and Fabrizio De Francesco

insights for the identification and measurement of regulatory quality in the EU. However, on balance we think that we do not need a state-centred concept in a context of multi-level governance, networks of regulators and increasing attention to the openness of policy-making processes. The notion of the regulatory state comes from Seidman and Gilmour (1986), with reference to the US federal government (see also Majone, 1996: 54–6). They make a distinction between the positive state and the regulatory state. The former provides services directly, by engaging in the

in Regulatory quality in Europe
Towards Specialised Services?
Christopher T. Marsden

. In order to properly research this claim, regulators need access to IAP traffic measurement data. There are several possible means of accessing data at Internet Exchange Points, but much data is private either because it is between two peers who do not use an Internet Exchange Point, or because it is carried by a CDN. 5 No government regulator has produced any reliable data, and carriers’ and CDNs’ own

in Network neutrality
Vaccine policy and production in Japan
Julia Yongue

reason for Japan's distinctive vaccination policies is the long history of outside influences on its institutional framework. German, and more recently, American contacts have had a profound effect on Japan's most fundamental regulatory institutions as well as other features such as regulators’ preference for full self-sufficiency in vaccines and domestically developed strains. Another area where Japan remains distinctive is regulators’ approach

in The politics of vaccination