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Mairi Cowan

offices and receive the sacraments and whose children therefore sometimes died without baptism and whose sick sometimes died without confession. At the end of the century a nobleman in the diocese of St Andrews, concerned about similar spiritual dangers, asked the Pope to erect a parish church on an island distant about two miles from the mainland whose inhabitants, particularly when the sea was swollen, could

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560
Susan Royal

. Stubbe was one of many nonconformists to draw anti-tithe testimony from Acts and Monuments , testimony which rested on assumptions about the nature of priesthood which Protestants (and many earlier dissenters) had reconfigured. As reformers sought to shape the English church in line with the Reformed marks of the true church – with sacraments rightly administered and the pure Word preached – the figure responsible for implementing those marks, the minister, was also subject to scrutiny. The theological overhaul of authority and church organisation had resurrected long

in Lollards in the English Reformation
Richard Cust
Peter Lake

government form of disorder, verging on sacrilege, produced by decades of weakness and neglect. The visitors summarised their experience of the diocese of Chester to Neile thus: ‘we had not service read twice alike in all the diocese, so well is the act of uniformity observed. The truth is everywhere they use the service book as they list (and I dare say) the congregation in most places spend twice the time in singing of psalms than the minister doth in it.’ The visitors also found, to quote Neile’s report, that ‘the administration of the sacraments, the forms, rites and

in Gentry culture and the politics of religion
Margret Fetzer

with thy Sacrament, thy Seale with thy Patent; and in that Sacrament associate the signe with the thing signified, the Bread with the Body of thy Sonne, so, as I may be sure to have received both, and to be made thereby, (as thy blessed servant Augustine sayes) the Arke, and the Monument, & the Tombe of thy most blessed Sonne, that hee, and all the merits of his death, may, by that receiving, bee buried in me, to my quickning in this world, and my immortall establishing in the next. (Devotions 39) Several communions are at stake here: first, the ‘Word’ must be

in John Donne’s Performances
Clive Barker and the spectre of realism
Daragh Downes

Galilee , Rukenau's castle in Sacrament , the mural world in Coldheart Canyon – is limited, controlled, localised, stinted . Barker's better novels are those in which it is possible to go for long stretches forgetting that one is in fact reading a non-realist work. His very best writing is that which tends towards a gentle magic realism. The full-blown secondary-world schemas

in Clive Barker
Byron and Italian Catholicism
Bernard Beatty

), it is not accurate, for any Mass involves careful ablutions, yet the overtly tangible detail clearly intrigues the poet in itself but does so only in so far as, once again, the narrator takes an insider Catholic position on the sacrament. This is not Protestant wine as symbol but wine actually changed (‘Converted by Christ’) into blood. In Catholic theology, taking communion does not absolve mortal sins, which contradict it, but it does forgive lesser 115 B yron and I talian Catholicism 115 sins.4 So Byron is right about ‘shriving their souls’ too. On its

in Byron and Italy
Alec Ryrie

. . . ministration of the Sacraments and service of God’. This may have been aimed principally at mere burglars. The group sentenced to death in 1556 for stealing ornaments from the parish church of Forres in Moray were probably simple criminals; likewise those who looted Cambuskenneth Abbey in 1558. The Dumfries man arrested in 1552 ‘for striking of a priest, and taking of the sacrament out of his hands’ was also as likely to have been motivated by personal malice as by any religious zeal. However, the burning of the parish church of Echt in Aberdeenshire, in 1558–59, was

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
Open Access (free)
French clerical reformers and episcopal status
Alison Forrestal

third of principalities, archangels and angels. The three triads of the ecclesiastical hierarchy consisted of ‘the operations of the sacraments, the godlike dispensers of the sacred things and those guided by them (the dispensers) . . . towards the sacred’. The highest division housed baptism, the eucharist and unction while the third held monastic orders, initiates (or holy people) and catechumens (those not yet admitted to the sacraments). Most importantly for our purpose, Bérulle placed hierarchs or bishops, priests and deacons in the middle triad.14 Figure 1

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Abstract only
Anne Sweeney

sacred imagery and sacraments, his pedagogic use of the reader’s poetic apprehension, and those all-informing paradoxes of violent care and self-preserving self-destruction, as disparate as they seem, all fold together in the person of Southwell himself, and in the last physical act of his life. Southwell’s ministry, his correspondence, his sermons, his poetry were all predicated upon his wish to be

in Robert Southwell
Abstract only
P. J. P. Goldberg

worship of the sacrament, and after my decease without any condition it shall remain unto this church to the said use. [d] [1474-5] Also, of the maidens’ collection for Our Lady light taper, 2 s 6 d . [e] [1454-5] Receipts for the sale of seats: In the first place, of Richard Batyn, goldsmith, procurator [i.e. churchwarden], for his seat and his

in Women in England c. 1275–1525