1956–1963 ’, Diplomacy and Statecraft , 17 : 2
( 2006 ), 369 – 370 .
Department of State, ‘Circular Telegram
from the Department of State to Certain Missions, Washington DC, 9
May 1962’, in Foreign Relations of the United States,
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ongoing eurozone crisis, the conflicts in Syria and Ukraine, the migration crisis as well as the uncertain development of European integration and transatlanticrelations after ‘Brexit’ and the Trump presidency have pushed ‘German foreign policy into an international leadership role’, although Germany had not ‘actively sought such a role’. 97 Germany did not seek ‘greater responsibility in Europe after reunification’; rather, it emerged as a central player ‘by remaining stable as the world around it changed’. 98 However, the growing international demands on German
The first option for EU member states may well have been to not join the
‘war on terror’ and continue to operate as before, adhering
to the traditional principle of national sovereignty. This is
represented by the first quadrant in the matrix. However, given the
still positive state of transatlanticrelations between Europe and
America, this would have necessitated a clear rupture in relations
The Eurozone crisis, Brexit, and possible disintegration
Peter J. Verovšek
, War and Remembrance,’ 45–58.
3 G. Morgan , ‘ European Political Integration and the Need for Justification ,’ Constellations , 14 : 3 ( 2007 ).
4 J. Habermas , ‘ February 15, or: What Binds Europeans, ’ in Old Europe, New Europe, Core Europe: TransatlanticRelations After the Iraq War , trans. M. Pensky ( London : Verso , 2005 ), 8 –12 . Also P. J. Verovšek , ‘ Meeting Principles and Lifeworlds Halfway: Jürgen Habermas on the Future of Europe ,’ Political Studies , 60 : 2 ( 2012 ), 371 –373 .
5 C. Cronin , ‘ Editor’s Preface, ’ in J
this is the case, it is vital to be able to identify such areas
in order better to understand past disputes, and foresee possible future
crises, in transatlanticrelations. It is useful to know precisely on
which fundamental issues individual European leaderships have tended to
agree and disagree in the recent past.
It might be expected that the actors will diverge on a
number of important standpoints
critical mechanism for the advancement of other aspects of the EU–Latin American relations agenda, and a cornerstone defining the evolution of transatlanticrelations.
Context of negotiations: geo-economic balancing
President Obama's administration (2008–16) pursued an intense trade agreement policy, with a particular focus on setting the rules of trade through ambitious mega-regional agreement negotiations: the TPP with eleven other states in the Americas, Asia and Australasia, and the TTIP with the European Union. Billed as game
1974’, in Reform and Renewal: TransatlanticRelations during the 1960s and 1970s , ed. Catherine Hynes and Sandra Scanlon (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2009), pp. 151–170.
Mason, Paying the Price , p. 129.
David Fairhall, ‘Cyprus puts defence cuts in doubt’, Guardian , 14 August 1974, p
the Iraq War and the resulting transatlantic rift delayed an agreement
on the deployment of the EU mission (Reichard, 2006 : 22). It was only a year later, after transatlanticrelations had improved and the EU had successfully taken over the NATO
operation in Macedonia, that preparations for EUFOR Althea started in
Mons and Brussels. The launch of the mission had to await NATO’s
– gained impetus in early 1950, largely because of pressure from
across the Atlantic. The minutes of GEN 183 reveal that ministers and
senior Whitehall officials were aware of the impact of the Fuchs case
and other security lapses on transatlanticrelations and were keen to
make amends in return for access to American secrets. At a meeting of
GEN 183 chaired by the Prime Minister on 5 April, it was agreed that an
From Cold War ‘security threats’ to the ‘security challenges’ of today
model of security policy’, West European Politics,
14 (3), pp. 122–43.
Greve, Tim (1973) Haakon VII of Norway. Founder of a New Monarchy, Hurst: London.
Häkämies, Jyri (2007) ‘Similar yet different: a Finnish perspective on European security
and transatlanticrelations’, speech at the Center for Strategic and International
Studies, Washington, DC, 6 September.
Haskel, Barbara G. (1976) The Scandinavian Option. Opportunities and Opportunity Costs
in Post-war Scandinavian Foreign Policies, Universitetsforlaget: Oslo.
Hautamäki, Jaakko (2008) ‘Ystävien kesken