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Irish farming knowledges
Caroline Crowley

disseminating knowledge. They outline a dichotomy of forms of knowledge, whereby codified knowledge is objectively derived from scientific enquiry by experts, and is ‘standardised and easily transferable’ whereas tacit or lay knowledge is ‘often personal and context-dependent’ (Morgan and Murdoch, 2000: 160–1) resulting as it does from the subjective interaction of practice, people and place. Thus, codified knowledge is universalisable or global, whereas tacit or lay knowledge is situated or local. These knowledge forms are employed here as Weberian ideal types that help

in Spacing Ireland
Open Access (free)
Duncan Wilson

called ‘ethics experts’.18 Thanks to escalating mistrust of club regulation, both in public and, crucially, in government, they derive their authority from being ‘expert outsiders’ who are independent from the profession or procedure under scrutiny.19 Their portrayal as ‘ethics experts’ confirms that bioethicists have indeed contributed to a shift in the location and exercise of biopower in Britain. The days of ‘club regulation’ are a thing of the past and we no longer believe that expertise in medical and scientific ethics is inscribed solely within doctors or

in The making of British bioethics
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Disorder and discomfort in the metropolis
Leif Jerram

regarding Germany as a ‘special case’ because of events which took place thirty or forty years later. British planners are held up as a paradigm of liberal, humanistic social reform (albeit with occasional asides about their controlling ambitions), while German ones are chastised for being racist.4 While many German town planners certainly were racist, so were their British counterparts. Spotting racialised discourse in German expert thought and writing in the early twentieth century is like shooting fish in a barrel; but so it is in French, British and American writing

in Germany’s other modernity
Peter Triantafillou

bureaucracy to utilise its resources efficiently and allows for a high level of calculability of results. Finally, the bureaucracy is based on expert knowledge in order to provide the most effective solutions to given Critical approaches11 ends. Weber linked this systematic use of technical expertise to a particular persona or ethos, namely that of Sachlichkeit or matter-of-factness. In the bureaucracy, employees are hired on the basis of their merits or, more precisely, their formal education instead of personal relations or status. Thus, the individual civil servant

in Neoliberal power and public management reforms
Leif Jerram

’ was strong in what administrators, social reformers and municipal politicians were doing – whether designing hospitals or social housing projects. And whereas at the beginning of the period in question, the turn of the century, governors and experts relied on the layout and appearance of buildings to achieve their effects, believing the mind to be particularly susceptible to the effects of light and colour, by the 1920s planning discourse had not only matured and grown, but had also acquired a more effective control over the levers of the state apparatus, such that

in Germany’s other modernity
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Pennington, E. coli and disaster science
Ed Randall

Forsyth MP, to head the inquiry of an expert group into the outbreak and to look beyond the immediate questions of individual culpability to the wider questions of food safety that the outbreak had raised. Understanding E. coli O157 Most strains of the E. coli bacteria are thought to be harmless and some may even be beneficial to humans. E. coli bacteria are found routinely in the guts of humans and farm animals and do not appear to be pathogenic. A rare strain of the E. coli bacteria, E. coli O157: H7, is believed to be responsible for the majority of life

in Food, risk and politics
Jarle Trondal, Martin Marcussen, Torbjörn Larsson, and Frode Veggeland

, again predominantly in the Commission: I think the British are not . . . well, some of them are very good at making networks and contacts, but there is a pretty weak British network within the 3436 Unpacking international organisations:2833Prelims 178 22/3/10 14:56 Page 178 The dynamics of compound bureaucracies European institutions. If I compare it with some colleagues, I know with the French they regularly have some meetings and when they have a seminar on a certain topic, they invite all the French – not just French national experts, but French nationality

in Unpacking international organisations
Tatiana Kotiukova

researcher, I was now convinced that the political and administrative disputes concerning the performance of military service by Turkestan’s native Muslim population, together with a lack of balanced expert analysis, led to the infamous Imperial decree of 25 June 1916 on conscription for labour brigades of peoples not serving in the Russian army. It was impossible to produce a publication on the revolt without addressing the issue of military service.3 By this time, as well as official administrative sources, I had studied memoirs and recollections of participants in the

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
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Byrne Katherine, Taddeo Julie Anne, and Leggott James

devastating effects of pandemics. This collection considers these key issues, alongside the appeal and popularity of the medical plot, and the way medicine has become ‘heritage’ due to its inclusion in period drama. Scope of the collection We begin with period dramas set in the early modern period of European, British, and American history, a time when medicine as a profession was coming into its own, as trained experts tried to

in Diagnosing history
The mythologies and legacies of mechanised tropical agriculture in French Africa, 1944 – 56
Céline Pessis

In 1944, equipping farmers and mechanising agriculture thus became consensus priorities in planning meetings where war efforts had propelled industrialists and agricultural experts to the forefront. Along with Rossin, two other agronomists embodied the shift leading to the triumph of the mechanising project as France was liberated. René Dumont had been close to modernising

in Developing Africa