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Performing femininities for clandestine purposes during the Second World War
Juliette Pattinson

Member of the French Resistance (London: Macmillan, 1947), p. 52. 27 Wake, pp. 132-3. 28 Mata Hari was a Dutch-born exotic dancer and courtesan who became embroiled in espionage by accident at the behest of her German lover. She was suspected of being a

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century
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Jeremy Tambling

someone being saved from a firing squad by injustice: it is a possibly autobiographical record of Blanchot in the French Resistance. Having been through the trauma of the death-sentence, without the execution, the narrator ends with ‘l’instant de ma mort toujours en instance’ – the instant of my death always in instance: hanging fire, indefinitely suspended, always in process, always in trial, postponed

in On anachronism
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Caroline Sturdy Colls and Kevin Simon Colls

Kalganov to believe that he had little chance of survival. Only clandestine food given to him by a German soldier at Westbatterie helped save his life. He witnessed how his fellow inmates were shot, crucified for stealing and beaten in the camp and at work. In March 1943, Kalganov was moved to Helgoland after the arrival of the SS in Sylt. When he finally reached the mainland, he was housed in a French labour camp. He reportedly joined the French resistance in Paris, although it is difficult to

in 'Adolf Island'
Michael Leonard

), a film star, in their chic residence in Rome. During the summer they are joined by Frédéric’s best friend Paul (Jérôme Robart) and his partner Elisabeth (Céline Sallette) when they come to visit. Paul and Elisabeth, bit-part actors from modest backgrounds, meet on set during the shooting of a period film about the French Resistance, a work which forms one of two films within the film. Garrel’s recourse to two couples as a visual motif deploys a form first present in Marie pour mémoire ( 1967 ) and later used in J’entends plus la guitare . While tracing the

in Philippe Garrel
Natalya Vince

with less certainty: ‘They rounded up the prostitutes, the brothers had tried to ban prostitution, sometimes they picked them up. They beat them … I didn’t agree, but I had no power because what [these women] did was not pretty, at least according to the morals of the time.’70 These moments of division, doubt and social difference in prison co-existed alongside moments of great solidarity – making flags, shouting slogans in French and Arabic, fasting whether Muslim or not, singing the Free French resistance anthem Le Chant des partisans to enrage prison wardens, and

in Our fighting sisters
Open Access (free)
Respectable resistance (coups de gueule polis)
James E. Connolly

‘moral resistance’,3 ‘resistance of religious and civic authorities’,4 ‘passive resistance’ or ‘defiance’.5 This phenomenon meets all four criteria outlined by Hollander and Einwohner, thus does comprise resistance: it constituted a form of action that opposed the occupiers and was recognised as resistance by the Germans and the French at the time and beyond. Indeed, when President Millerand opened an exhibition in Lille in May 1921 dedicated to the occupation, the display ‘French Resistances’ contained a subsection entitled ‘The Protests of Civic and Religious

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
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Duvivier and the 1930s
Ben McCann

successes of Allô Berlin? Ici Paris!, La Tête d’un homme, and Poil de carotte. 19 This sun-​drenched scene is a world away from the oppressive gloom of David Golder. 20 Lynen joined the French Resistance and was tortured and shot by the Gestapo in 1944. 21 The British Board of Film Censors banned Poil de carotte in 1933 because it displayed scenes depicting a child driven to suicide.   69 SOUND, IMAGE, GABIN: DUVIVIER AND THE 1930 s   69 Five little pieces: Le Paquebot Tenacity (1934), Maria Chapdelaine (1934), Golgotha (1935), Le Golem (1936), and L’Homme du jour

in Julien Duvivier
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Natasha Alden

. Television parodies of the clichés of the First and the Second World Wars persisted through the 1970s and 1980s, and are still powerful today. Beyond the Fringe skewered ideals of insane devotion to duty in the face of certain death, and the television programme ’Allo ’Allo affectionately mocked the French Resistance and presented the German occupiers of France as bumbling idiots, easily outwitted by elderly women with radio transmitters hidden under their beds. More recently, the comedian Harry Enfield and the writers of the comedy series The Fast Show produced pastiche

in Reading behind the lines
Guy Austin

documentary about contemporary history ever made, bar none, and by far the greatest film I’ve ever seen about the Holocaust’ (Insdorf 1983 : 254). Lanzmann had fought with the French Resistance as a youth before travelling to Israel after the war and making the film Pourquoi Israël . But his major achievement is undeniably Shoah , a project which took eleven years to make – from 1974 to 1985 – the first six years recording

in Contemporary French cinema
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

with de Gaulle’s Free French resistance movement. He became a Senator in the Fourth Republic, and, when de Gaulle accepted the call to introduce a new constitution in 1958, Debré played a leading role in drafting that constitution. After serving as Prime Minister, he later became Foreign Minister and Defence Minister. In 1981 he was a candidate for the presidency, but received only about 1 per cent of the vote on the first

in The politics today companion to West European Politics