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Martine Pelletier

feared nor frustrated, though that image itself may owe as much to Jack’s imagination as to fact, as Michael’s own memories of that golden summer of 1936 do. It is nonetheless striking that Friel should pit the sterility of Irish culture, deprived of any continuity with its pagan Celtic roots, against the joyous celebrations and dances of Africa perceived as a repository of a universal sense of the sacred. Africa though, is beyond the reach of the sisters, whose only choice appears to be either a frugal, lonely life in Ballybeg or emigration to London. A culture that

in Irish literature since 1990
The Irish in Australia
Patricia M. O’Connor

passage schemes, the predominantly servant and labouring status of workers, and their mainly Catholic backgrounds all contributed to the constructed inferiority of the Irish in nineteenth-century Australia (O’Farrell, 2000). However, as O’Farrell (2000: 313) remarks: ‘one of multiculturalism’s unintended side-effects was to gradually make Irishness respectable: by 2000 the days of it being a social liability were well over’. In Australia as in the USA, Irish culture became commodified as ‘global audiences became more attuned to the consumption of Irishness in print

in Migrations
100 years of Ireland in National Geographic magazine
Patrick J. Duffy

with an American divorcée. Traditional Irish storyteller. References Arensberg, C. M. and Kimball, S. T. (1940) Family and Community in Ireland. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 194 100 years of Ireland in National Geographic Bell, D. (1995) ‘Picturing the landscape: Die grune insel: tourist images of Ireland’, European Journal of Communication 10, 1: 41–62. Brett, D. (1996) The Construction of Heritage. Cork: Cork University Press. Gibbons, L. (1996) Transformations in Irish Culture. Cork: Cork University Press. Kirby, P., Gibbons, L. and Cronin, M. (2002

in Spacing Ireland
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Roddy Doyle’s hyphenated identities
Eva Roa White

interculturalism as a viable, enriching possibility for both natives and immigrants. He experiences the encounter with foreigners as a threat to traditional Irish culture and values. Doyle’s characterisation of the Minister for the Arts and Ethnicity as a thug with no cultural sensitivity poses the question of how genuine the Irish government is in terms of accepting the ethnic minorities in Ireland unconditionally. As we find out later, the Minister is a wolf in sheep’s clothing who, far from representing and promoting cultural understanding, is actually in charge of keeping

in Literary visions of multicultural Ireland
Tales of contemporary Dublin city life
Loredana Salis

representations of the migrant Other and its location in Irish culture. Questions will be posed as to the kind of images of the city that emerge, the tales we hear, who conveys and who receives them, and the depiction of the ‘non-native’ Other. The Dublin Trilogy was written and premiered between 1995 and 1998. A production of Mercier’s Passion Machine Theatre Company, the trilogy includes Buddleia (1995), Kitchensink (1997), and Native City (1998), providing an indepth chronicle of Ireland’s capital city and its people (White, 1998: 2). The staging of Native City brought

in Literary visions of multicultural Ireland
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Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence
Justin Carville

verbally’ (1984: 116), and Marie de Paor has contended that ‘Native Irish culture survived in words and traditional music’ (1993: 120). In fact, the perceived ‘absence of a visual tradition in Ireland, equal in stature to its powerful literary counterpart’, as Luke Gibbons once described it (1986: 10), has been central to debates on the identification of culturally differentiated practices of seeing and representation that may characterise a distinct Irish visual culture (Carville 2007, 2011; Dalsimer and Kreilkamp 1993; McBride 1984; McCole 2007). However, there are two

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Louise Fuller

expressions of Catholic and Irish identity state were also very concerned to further the aim of restoring the Irish language and culture to its rightful position and they did this chiefly by means of the education system. Church and political interests had the same vision of the purity and distinctiveness of Irish culture and were equally concerned to restore, maintain and protect what was seen as the unique Irish Catholic identity from what were perceived to be alien influences emanating from abroad. Independence made it possible to copper-fasten Catholic identity and

in Irish Catholic identities
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Migrations
Joshua Davies

culture, as well as Irish culture, Roman culture, the Normans, as well as the Jewish communities who arrived after the Norman Conquest only to be expelled 200 years later, among many other arrivals.11 The political meaning of the Hugin is perhaps most clearly expressed when it is situated alongside the arrival of another vessel that docked in Tilbury, Essex, the year before:  HMT Empire Windrush, which brought one of the first large groups of West Indian migrants to the UK. The history of the Hugin is another example of medievalist double consciousness: an event that

in Visions and ruins
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O’Faoláin and the descent of The Bell
Niall Carson

frustrations that he felt with the production of a distinctly Irish body of literature, and with the general paucity of activity among Irish writers goes some way towards explaining why he decided to attempt to publish The Bell. That he should go so far as to see the Mass Observation of Irish society as it was lived as necessary is a testament to what he perceived as the barrenness of Irish culture. O’Faoláin was starting from first principles, asking: what is Irish culture, how do the Irish actually live? Without such information a comprehensive picture of Ireland would be

in Rebel by vocation
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Signing off
Niall Carson

editors’ failure to find content that was relevant to a modern Irish market. O’Faoláin may have been idealistic in trying to start from scratch and build the edifice of Irish culture anew, but The Bell and its writers left an important mark on the Irish cultural imagination. Ireland’s youth in the decade when The Bell stumbled towards its demise, were not interested enough in the magazine to ensure its survival; it had lost its ability to engage and was overtaken by other fora. Yet its legacy remains assured because it uniquely crystallised the faults of an

in Rebel by vocation