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Bernadette Connaughton

institutional structures with the shift from unanimity to the introduction of qualified majority voting in the Council of Ministers and an enhancement of the European Parliament’s role. The Treaty on European Union (1991) built on these reforms, enshrined the principle of subsidiarity and introduced the timetable for EMU. Further treaty revision has followed with the Amsterdam Treaty (1996), Nice Treaty (2001), the ill-fated European Constitution, and most recently the Lisbon Treaty defeated in Ireland in a referendum on the 12 June 2008. All have ramifications for

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
Nicholas Rees

such as the UN, WTO and EU, which do place pressures on the state to adapt its policies. In some of these instances there is clearly a high degree of connectedness and integration with the European Union, where the state has to also meet its obligations and 5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd 172 3/9/09 16:45 Page 172 Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland requirements to work together in formulating joint responses and actions to international issues and events. For example, the debate over the Lisbon Treaty referendum (2008) provided Irish

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
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Matt Treacy

, and by and large hostile to socialism, is little represented among any republican grouping, although it still has a resonance within the broader society judging by groups such as Cóir which campaigned against the Lisbon Treaty which appeals to republican and Catholic sentiment. And of course the disappearance of the Soviet Union and by and large the discrediting of Marxism make the republican debate of the 1960s appear somewhat anachronistic. The third major area of dispute in the 1960s centred on the role of the IRA. For the pragmatists, who dominated the post-1962

in The IRA 1956–69
Gary Murphy

crowds in his native Offaly in May 2008, singing a song from a makeshift stage while drinking a pint of Guinness, none of this appeared to be anywhere on the horizon. In fact Cowen originally had to face a much more mundane task on becoming Taoiseach, and that was to get yet another one of Ireland’s seemingly interminable European referendum treaties passed and out of the way. This seemed like a routine task but it would turn out to be anything but. The Lisbon Treaty referendum of 12 June 2008 proved to be the beginning of Cowen’s never-ending difficulties in his short

in Electoral competition in Ireland since 1987
Simon Bulmer and Martin Burch

overseeing a further IGC to finalise this new treaty (the Lisbon Treaty). We will not consider the impact on the UK of this protracted period of constitutional debate in detail, since the process had not reached a conclusion at the time of writing and the impact on UK central government will not be felt until the ratification process has been completed. Nevertheless, there will be some significant institutional and policy reforms with an impact upon the UK, assuming that ratification is successful. One other significant development is worthy of mention regarding the EU

in The Europeanisation of Whitehall
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Jonathan Hearn

Conservative government is exploring options in what is expected to be a long-drawn-out process of delivering Brexit. That process officially began on 29 March 2017, when the UK invoked Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty. Negotiations for exit are supposedly to be concluded within two years. Behind these events lies a deeper issue, of a changing political and economic landscape, and the weakening grip of the established two-party system, Labour and Conservative, on that terrain. There has been a fundamental historical shift, from a more industrially based economy with a

in Salvage ethnography in the financial sector
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Economics, influence and security
Oliver Daddow

Whitman 2007: 262). Into its second and third terms New Labour alighted on reform of the EU’s decision-making machinery as its point of attack, which became channelled through the Constitutional and Lisbon Treaty negotiations. In both cases British influence was held to be at stake. In October 1999 economic reform was taken to be about switching EU policies ‘away from regulation to job creation’ (Blair 1999f), such that after the Lisbon summit in March 2000 Blair could argue that Britain’s active involvement in the process (explored in Hopkin and Wincott 2006: 54

in New Labour and the European Union
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Ana E. Juncos

EU foreign policy from the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1991 to later developments such as the addition of the CSDP and the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. In the book, I investigate the EU’s involvement during the war, but also the range of CFSP tools and instruments deployed after the war to help post-conflict reconstruction and those used more recently by the Union to lead this

in EU Foreign and Security Policy in Bosnia
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Ireland, German reunification and remaking Europe
Mervyn O’Driscoll

retained control over the necessary policies to promote national economic wellbeing in a global economy.50 The ‘Celtic Tiger’ phenomenon and Dublin’s (un) conscious blending of Boston and Berlin’s socio-​economic models had produced a unique perspective on the EU in at least some Irish quarters, and it also fuelled a sense of economic and national confidence. This was epitomised by the Irish electorate’s rejection of both the Nice Treaty and the Lisbon Treaty in Irish referenda in 2001 and 2008, which led to reruns in 2002 and 2009. Both the first Nice (Nice I) and

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73
Inter-regionalism in a new era
Julie Gilson

1992 signed the Maastricht Treaty, which established the three-pillar structure of Europe, thereby ensuring that a significant amount of European business (under the “European Community” pillar) would henceforth be conducted at supranational level under the auspices of the Commission, Parliament and Court of Justice. It also led to the creation of the euro zone, a common currency for the majority of EU states. Since that time, additional treaties have further consolidated the legal character of the EU, and in 2009 the Lisbon Treaty increased the number of issue areas

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific