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Ontological, epistemological and normative issues
Sondre Lindahl

Introduction As the two preceding chapters have documented, it would not be an overstatement to suggest that Western countries embraced a kind of terrorism/counter-terrorism hyperbole after the 9/11 attacks. The almost singular focus and frenzied attention on waging war on terror was at the same time, as a recent article shows, supported by a similar singular focus and attention in academia on jihadism ( Schuurman, 2019 ). As a result, other terrorism s or forms of violent extremism were subjugated or simply ignored. However, with several attacks perpetrated

in Encountering extremism
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Politics, violence and resistance
Richard Jackson

comparable with the causes of the ‘war on terrorism’. The simple but disturbing answer was positive: the causes are broadly similar. Through a careful analysis of the official language of counter-terrorism, I discovered that the discursive strategies employed by the American and British administrations to construct the ‘war on terrorism’ were the same as those used by leaders and

in Writing the war on terrorism
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

6 Conclusions and forecasts This effort to understand the place of terrorism in twenty-first century warfare began with a review of the explanations for why terrorism may have been used during discrete phases of insurgencies, as proposed by revolutionary theorists such as Mao, General Giap, and others. Current circumstances suggest a more complicated picture, however, than these theorists supposed. It may be that the strategies of insurgent groups have changed over time. The causes may lie in the enormous population shift from rural to urban and the increasing

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Sarah L. Henderson, Scott N. Romaniuk, and Aliaksandr Novikau

order at home and reasserting Russia’s national interests on the world stage; centralized power was the antidote to Chechen terrorism within Russia, and at the international level, Russia could increase its power as a key player in the US-led War on Terror (WoT). However, many of the actions flowing from the Bush administration’s subsequent WoT challenged Russian interests

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Wider Europe, weaker Europe?

The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.

Towards supranational governance in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

The European Commission had become one of the more contentious actors during both Irish referenda on the Lisbon Treaty. This book discusses the role of the European Commission and institutions more generally, as well as the policy area of justice and home affairs. It argues that it is important to evaluate the role of EU institutions for the process of European integration. The book suggests a reconceptualisation of the framework of supranational policy entrepreneurs (SPEs), which is often referred to by the academic literature that discusses the role of agency in European integration. It focuses on the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) at the policy and treaty levels; primarily on four grounds: academic literature, SPE behaviour, EU's policymaking, and the interplay between treaty negotiations and policy-making. To analyse the role of the European institutions, the book combines an analysis of the Lisbon Treaty in relation to the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice with an analysis of the policy-making in the same area. The public policy model by John Kingdon with constructivist international relations literature is also outlined. The external dimension of counter-terrorism in the EU; the role of the EU institutions in EU asylum and migration; and the role of he Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is discussed. The book also analyses the role of the EU institutions in the communitarisation of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, and thus subsequently in the Lisbon Treaty.

Brazilian approaches to terrorism and counterterrorism in the post-9/11 era
Jorge M. Lasmar

Introduction More than ever, specialists are turning to regional specificities when trying to understand how particular terrorist groups think and act. Terrorist groups commonly adopt radicalized transnational ideologies and rhetoric. However, in most cases, we see that terrorist groups not only inscribe their local grievances onto the larger globalized rhetoric but also adapt their modus operandi to the regional realities of their particular theatre(s) of action. The same can be said about governmental responses to terrorism. It is

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
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Enhancing India–U.S. intelligence cooperation
Saikat Datta

the “U.S. might be constrained to act against Pakistan and India for indulging in acts of terrorism against each other.” 28 The fact that Raman was called for the briefing was also due to his position as the head of R&AW’s “Special Operations” 29 desk that primarily worked on Pakistan-related work. This is a significant detail that establishes Raman’s long-held suspicions of U.S. intentions in South Asia. However, Raman’s frustration epitomizes the strained relationship between the Indian and American intelligence

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
Emma Leonard Boyle

Introduction Uganda's counterterrorism policy can only be understood in the context of President Yoweri Museveni's national and regional ambitions. Throughout his long tenure as president of Uganda, Museveni has courted the support and aid of the West in order to strengthen his position as president and to increase his stature within East Africa. While economic development dominated the 1990s in Uganda, the focus of the 2000s has been security and, more specifically, terrorism. In the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Museveni was the

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
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Emma Louise Briant

1 Introduction Following the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks, the so-called ‘psychological terrain’ was seen as the crucial counter-terrorism ‘battleground’ where compliance might be created or conflict influenced in Afghanistan and Iraq. Much has been written about the ‘hearts and minds’ campaigns of the governments of the United States and United Kingdom. Yet this book will illuminate an unseen story, that of the planning behind the propaganda, from the mouths of the key planners themselves. It traces their efforts to adapt propaganda systems that were

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism