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Dancers, musicians, and the transformation of social dancing into mass culture in the USA, c. 1900–41
Klaus Nathaus and James Nott

-class dances did not hire AFM members but sought to find able players among non-union musicians. This meant that they had to select performers on a labour market that was open to virtually all comers and thus highly competitive. Black players were overrepresented on this market. Not only were they excluded from the unions, but they were also more inclined to work in music and put up with adverse labour conditions. A badly paid gig in show business was still more attractive than most other jobs available to African Americans

in Worlds of social dancing
Abstract only
Marc James Léger

labour conditions. What is significant for Roberts is that exhibitions such as this one display a keen sense that we are beyond both modernism and postmodernism and that the stakes of writing on art and politics are far higher than the art world typically recognises. The strength of this book, therefore, is that it helps to bring the dark matter of the activist art world to a new level of class consciousness. According to Roberts, the devalorisation of capital will lead either to radicalisation or to a cleansing of the system through

in Vanguardia
Lea Bou Khater

’s participation in political life reflected some realism and will towards integration. The independence of Lebanon, the victory of the Allied Forces and the role of the Soviet Union in the war against Germany reinforced and strengthened the position of the FTUWE at the national level. After independence, the first and most important battle fought by the labour movement and the FTUWE, in particular, was the battle for the promulgation of the Labour Code in 1946. The first law pertaining to labour conditions in Lebanon was the Act of 27

in The labour movement in Lebanon
Abstract only
Andrew Dix

regard to this early time, then, star studies should free itself from an exclusive focus on film texts themselves so as to incorporate analysis of the star’s extension across other elements of the commodity world. The commercial exploitability of the star has increased exponentially in subsequent decades. From the 1950s onwards, however, Hollywood has also witnessed the star’s relative autonomy compared with the cramped labour conditions of the classical era. The collapse of the studio system under economic and legislative pressures discussed in Chapter 9

in Beginning film studies (second edition)
Refugee industrialists in the Manchester region
Bill Williams

as part of the Council’s attempt to give itself an edge over competitors in the Special Areas by suggesting the advantages of Lancashire over sites in Scotland, London and the Midlands. In Lancashire, he is quoted as saying, ‘labour conditions’ were particularly satisfactory: skilled workers were more readily available than elsewhere, his own workers ‘efficient, keen and willing, and easy to get on with’. Transport facilities were excellent: ‘all goods we are loading in the evening are delivered first thing next morning’. He had no regrets over choosing Lancashire

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
The parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard
Mary Raschko

Kenyon, ‘Labour Conditions in Essex in the Reign of Richard II’, Economic History Review, 4 (1934), 438, 444. For the claim that some labourers in Suffolk received 6d per day during harvest, see Simon Penn and Christopher Dyer, ‘Wages and Earnings in Late Medieval England: Evidence from the Enforcement of the Labour Laws’, Economic History Review, 2nd Series, 43:3 (1990), 369. 19 Analysing the Gospel parable in light of its contemporary economic context, William Herzog argues that Jesus told the parable to expose oppression of workers. See Parables as Subversive

in The politics of Middle English parables
João Labareda

reciprocity in these terms does not presuppose the existence of a comprehensive set of social institutions according to the Rawlsian “basic structure”. The latter includes features as varied as the political constitution, the legal system, and the conception of family of a given society. 68 Young’s model of social connection cited already is consistent with the idea of a less comprehensive, and yet decisive, “economic structure”. An economic structure comprises, for instance, patterns of division of labour, conditions of access to capital, endowments of natural

in Towards a just Europe
João Labareda

, I propose that claims of reciprocity in the EU are closely linked to its economic structure, thus mainly requiring pre-distribution. What is an “economic structure”? In Chapter 1 , I defined economic structure as the key features of a system of cooperation which pervasively shape its outcomes, regardless of individual efforts. This structure includes features as diverse as patterns of division of labour, conditions of access to capital, endowments of natural resources, terms of trade for goods and services, and formal rules of cooperation, such as taxes and

in Towards a just Europe
Racial politics, luso-tropicalism and development discourse in late Portuguese colonialism
Caio Simões de Araújo and Iolanda Vasile

labour, indigenous and white, being the most obvious one. On the other hand, if the discourse of the ‘unity of the nation’ was to work, it was necessary to improve labour conditions and indigenous welfare and, at the same time, increase the waves of white settlement, which was, in the early 1950s, below the desired level, especially in the vast territories of Angola and Mozambique

in Developing Africa
Paul Copeland

employers reach an agreement on the minimum wage through sectoral dialogue with 90 per cent of employees working in the private sector being part of a collective agreement. As such, the negotiated labour conditions resulting from collective agreements are not universally applicable and are therefore not covered by the Posting of Workers Directive. Regulatory coalition Member States could point to a number of examples where the directive had been detrimental to the established practices of some sectors, such as the German construction industry (Kahmann, 2006). The

in EU enlargement, the clash of capitalisms and the European social dimension