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Simon Barton
Richard Fletcher

rare work, the Vitas Sanctorum Patrum Emeritensium (‘The Lives of the Holy Fathers of Mérida’: ch. 4), a copy of which had been in the royal library in the early years of the tenth century. 15 Two authors above all others he knew and loved: Sallust and Einhard. Phrases from Sallust’s Bellum Catilinae and Bellum Iugurthinum (‘The Catiline War’ and ‘The

in The world of El Cid
Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

-and-a-half years. Offices continued to be distributed between major and minor guilds, but as with most of Florentine history before and after the Ciompi, the old families were back in control [131] . In marked contrast to the Jacquerie, the Tuchins, or the German Peasants’ War of 1524/5, however, no bloody repression with mass executions in fields or from town gallows followed. Nor is there any evidence of mass

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
Elisabeth van Houts

weight of the whole war would fall on him and therefore sent a monk in haste to the duke. He told the duke that he utterly repented of the offences he had committed against him, and that he wished to come to his court and to give him back the city of Evreux. The duke was delighted by this news and promised him a safe conduct and granted him permission to come and see him. Theobald and his retinue arrived at the ducal court

in The Normans in Europe
T. J. H. McCarthy

abated and a prince of great wisdom and strength has appeared to govern the Roman empire with enterprise, in whom by the grace of God the whole world, both Roman and German, rejoices in complete applause – namely Henry, 2 the fifth king and fourth emperor [of that name], 3 a man of many virtues, ferocious in war, pious and gentle in peace. Since he, like the gleaming morning star, has arrayed himself

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest
Graham A. Loud

destroyed. 23 Robert had built this castellum on a grand scale and with great labour on account of his war with the Beneventans and the hostility of the city. From those residing in this castrum the citizens had suffered much harm and a multitude of injuries, [not least] because as a consequence of its construction some amongst them had lost the lands and properties which they had owned in the

in Roger II and the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily
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Paul Fouracre
Richard A. Gerberding

great love of the abstract; for them the purpose of political power was contained in one concrete and comprehensible word: peace. Peace could be broken in two ways: from without, i.e. by the invasion of foreigners, or from within, i.e. by internal disputes of all sorts, ranging from local vendettas to larger-scale civil wars. And here we have the two basic political responsibilities of their kings: to keep

in Late Merovingian France
Timothy Reuter

he wished, and set Rastiz, a nephew of Moimar, as a dux over them. 2 From there he returned through the lands of the Bohemians with great difficulty and serious loss to his army. At this time the Moors came to Rome with an army, and after they had failed to break into the city they destroyed the church of St Peter. 3 847 This year was free of wars, 1 and Lothar and Louis spent

in The Annals of Fulda
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Graham A. Loud
Thomas Wiedemann

western emperors were prepared to acknowledge the new kingdom. Peace talks with Byzantium c .1143 broke down when the new emperor, Manuel Comnenus, refused to accept Roger’s status as a king, and the Sicilians launched a naval attack on Byzantium in 1147 – which, among other things, contributed significantly to the failure of the Second Crusade. The war with Byzantium, and Sicilian naval operations in

in The History of the Tyrants of Sicily by ‘Hugo Falcandus’ 1154–69
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Andrew Brown
Graeme Small

or her belly for the duke to place his feet inside’) and desperate for a reconciliation; unlike Bruges, the city had never laid a hand on the duke, and had fully repaid 300,000 gold crowns it owed in war reparations. 16 The Bishop of Toul was sympathetic, but not optimistic …] Heavens, we truly hope

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530
Trevor Dean

portraits (King Robert of Naples in Florence, Guidoriccio Fogliani in Siena), as were significant moments in civic history (the history of Pope Alexander III and Emperor Frederick I in Venice). Such images were fixed, permanently visible; others were mobile, such as the flags of guilds and confraternities, or the miracle-working images paraded in procession at times of disaster, or the painted war

in The towns of Italy in the later Middle Ages