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Imperial legacies and post-imperial realities
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki

Multinational division Iraq Iraq US-allied 2003–4 An engineering company 300 ISAF Afghanistan NATO 2003–14 Multiple units, including

in Defense policies of East-Central European countries after 1989
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Steven Kettell

spectacular fashion. Anticipating a rapid transition to democratic governance, US plans for the post-war situation proved to be dangerously inadequate, leading to an outbreak of chaos, disorder and insurgency. Compounding this, political pressures over the war also mounted as the hunt for weapons of mass destruction drew a blank, and as the diversion of resources from Afghanistan allowed the Taliban and al-Qaeda to regenerate their capabilities. The scope of the mission By the spring of 2002, signs that not all was well in Britain’s war on terror were starting to appear

in New Labour and the new world order
J.W.M. Hichberger

brief interludes between working trips. 12 The first was based on the Afghan war of 1878–80, which he had covered for The Graphic. 13 This work depicted The Road Home: the Return of the Imperial Brigade from Afghanistan . The title suggests that it showed men on the march rather than engaged in a battle. 14 The second seems, however, to have been a battle scene, Fighting Arabi with his own Weapons: Tel

in Images of the army
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The end of International Relations?
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

issues and subjected them to the heated debates. Primary among them were issues of international security, democratization and political culture. Extra intensity was added to the discussion when newly elected President George W. Bush declared a ‘war on terror’, the initial phases of which involved US-led invasions of Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). The USA had been stung by wasps. President Bush found the wasps’ nest and insisted on beating it with a stick. American soldiers who were sent abroad to combat the threatening swarms tried to shoot their way out

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
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Elizabeth Dauphinée

interesting fixtures on display for the enjoyment of the Western tourist – they appear to be indistinguishable from their stilted houses and interesting animals. Adventure tourists are also eager to get to Afghanistan. ‘The main reason to go is the bragging rights’, says one traveller. ‘Mostly it’s just cool to be in a place called “Kandahar”.’37 The Afghanistan-based Kabul City Tours assures its visitors that they will see ‘breathtaking scenery, the beautiful faces of the people, [and] the unbelievable destruction’,38 while British Airways spokesperson John Lampl describes

in The ethics of researching war
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Chinese triads, Turkish families, and heroin
Stephen Snelders

group of users of Dutch and other ethnic backgrounds in the country. Chinese heroin supply by air was extended, while criminal anarchy manifested in increasing rivalry and armed violence between Chinese groups. In this fragmented situation Turkish and Kurdish crime families took over dominance of the heroin trade after 1980. These groups connected opium production in Afghanistan with heroin manufacture in Turkey and consumption in the Netherlands and elsewhere. They made use of the geographical and historical position of Turkey as a transit hub for

in Drug smuggler nation
Rebecca Gill

the Ottoman treatment of Christians, as well as against British conduct in Afghanistan, and many would reunite after the war to protest the plight of the Macedonians. This did not mean that they were always unanimous. Thus, for example, for some, support for a people ‘struggling to be free’ extended to Irish Home Rule, while for others, basic liberties and freedom from

in Calculating compassion
Open Access (free)
Edward M. Spiers

campaigns. He confirmed that letter-writing was not an exclusive preserve of regimental officers, 5 and that many shrewd and observant commentaries were written by non-commissioned officers (NCOs) and private soldiers. Emery, though, spread his work over much of the Victorian period, including odd letters from the Crimea, India and Afghanistan, and so covered several campaigns in a perfunctory manner – one

in The Victorian soldier in Africa
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Modernization without Colonization
François Burgat

, traditional tribal law; 5 second, Muslim law; and finally, “modern,” Western-inspired legal codes. The history of contemporary Yemen is defined by a certain dualism, from the outset of the competition between the Ottoman and British empires in 1839 to the country’s reunification in May 1990 that formally brought to an end the long and turbulent North/South division. This provided political scientists with a unique laboratory through which to examine the coexistence between how politics expressed itself in the “Afghanistan of the Gulf” in the North

in Understanding Political Islam
John M. MacKenzie

, Afghanistan and the North West Frontier, the Punjab and Persia between the 1820s and 1850s or in civil administration in northern India. But Wolseley and Roberts were also present at the relief of Lucknow, young subalterns who would continue to figure in colonial campaigns until the end of the century. 12 The Mutiny thoroughly established the iconic significance of the Scottish soldier, and the musical

in Popular imperialism and the military 1850–1950