Marian devotion, the Holy Family and Catholic conceptions of marriage and sexuality
dissuade Catholicwomen from adapting to these social mores. Numerous
Catholic manuals for young women addressed the issue of make-up and
the appropriate balance between attractiveness, fashionable dress and
proper Catholic behaviour.68
In a similar vein, the Bishop of Salford, in a sermon to the Union of
Catholic Mothers, had recourse to Mary as the one who offered ‘the true
130-201 FaithFamily Ch 4.indd 142
‘A model for many homesteads’143
norms and right ideals’ of ‘delicacy and modesty’, allowing present-day
youth to escape from the
a 1927 survey conducted by the Association of CatholicWomen Teachers, in which 9,392 women participated, nearly three-quarters (72 per cent) had their own household and a mere 11 per cent lived with their parents. However, 71.2 per cent of the respondents supported relatives, usually a mother or a sister, and so could not necessarily live an independent existence. 136
During the Weimar Republic women’s share of the teaching profession remained fairly stable, at just under one-third, in part because many states had established ratios for male and female teachers
Refugee Committees, and
the London reception centres, which were often aided by such charitable bodies such as the WVS, the CatholicWomen’s League and the
British Red Cross. What is striking is that, as early as June 1940, a
number of specifically French organisations were emerging to cater for
their own nationals. In part, this reflected a strong sense of patriotic
pride, and the impressive organisational skills of a long-established
French colony in London. It also signalled that the refugees were about
The forgotten French
the male hegemony of bishops and Roman
authorities. Catholicwomen could become religious only by entering a
religious institute that had earned diocesan or papal approbation. The
authority of women religious would always be circumscribed by this male
hegemony. This makes it more difficult to determine the context and depth
of their authority. They, like so many women of the nineteenth century, were
subordinate to a patriarchal hierarchy which could disempower them. Yet
they exerted the authority they associated with their identity as religious.
Despite the dominant
–40 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
61 C. Highley, Catholics Writing the Nation in Early Modern Britain and Ireland (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2008).
62 The Times (6 January 1980), p. 4.
63 Sister Mary Xavier, ‘Martyrs of England standing on high’, Westminster Hymnal (1891;
1903; 5th edn, London: Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 1924), p. 271; N. Jiwon Cho,
Making and remaking saints
‘“Martyrs of England! Standing on high!”: Roman Catholicwomen’s hymn-writing for the
re-invigoration of the faith in England, 1850–1903’, in L. Lux-Sterritt and C
Elizabeth Fry and Sarah Martin
n her influential lecture ‘Sisters of Charity’ (1855) championing women’s
involvement in public service, the art historian and social commentator Anna
Jameson (1794–1860) called her countrywomen to emulate Catholicwomen, past and
present, by forming ‘active charitable Orders’. By ‘Sisters of Charity’ she spoke not
merely ‘of a particular order of religious women, belonging to a particular church, but
also in a far more comprehensive sense, as indicating the vocation of a large number
of women in every country
survey of the World Union of
057-129 FaithFamily Ch 3.indd 111
Faith in the family
CatholicWomen’s Organisations presented to the Vatican as a ‘cry of
anguish’. It concluded:
In essence Catholicwomen felt unable to play their full role in the Church.
They were welcomed to repair vestments and help raise money, but little else.
… women had been considered ‘a low form of fringe life’ until the Second
These sentiments reached a peak two years later in the controversy
surrounding Pope Paul VI’s ruling against artificial
Cochinchine, de Camboye & du Tonquin &c
(Paris: Charles Angot, 1684 ), pp. 198, 244; Alberts, Conflict and
conversion , p. 175. On the role of the Amantes de la
Croix in providing Vietnamese Catholicwomen with an alternative
to traditional family life, see Nhung Tuyet Tran, ‘Les
Amantes de la Croix: an early modern Vietnamese
sisterhood’, in Gisèle
’s, Green, 1868), p. 319.
Ibid., pp. 333–4.
Ibid., p. 341.
Ibid., p. 343.
Report on the welfare of Irish Catholic girls in Britain 1953, by Mrs Elizabeth
Fitzgerald, president Archdiocese of Westminster branch of CatholicWomen’s
League, National Archives Ireland, Department of the Taoiseach, S11582 Emigration.
6 Maguire, The Irish in America, p. 339.
7 M. E. Daly, The Slow Failure: Population Decline and Independent Ireland, 1920–1970
(Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), pp. 78–82.
M&H 01_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:13 Page 31
Being Irish in nineteenth-century Scotland and Canada
S. Karly Kehoe
. My opinion is somewhat different to those
expressed by Carmen Mangion and Susan O’Brien. See Mangion, Contested
Identities: CatholicWomen Religious in Nineteenth-Century England and Wales
(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2008) and S. O’Brien, ‘French nuns in
nineteenth-century England’, Past & Present, 54 (1997), 142–80.
6 S. K. Kehoe, Creating a Scottish Church: Catholicism, Gender and Ethnicity in NineteenthCentury Scotland (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2010); S. K. Kehoe, ‘Irish
migrants and the recruitment of Catholic Sisters to Glasgow