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James L. Newell

10 Berlusconi’s legacy for the quality of Italian democracy In chapter 6, we explored Berlusconi’s relations with the political class, seeking to make sense of his conflict of interests, that is, to understand why it gave rise to such passions among foreign observers and what it was about the context in which he took office that would explain why it arose in the first place. Our answer to the first question was that in infringing the rule separating the public and the private, Berlusconi’s conduct was implicitly subversive of the conditions under which the

in Silvio Berlusconi
Normative power or realist interests?
Gordon Crawford

8 EU human rights and democracy promotion in Africa: normative power or realist interests? Gordon Crawford Under the slogan of ‘one Europe, one Africa’, the Joint Africa–EU Strategy (JAES), adopted at the second EU–Africa Summit in Lisbon (December 2007), introduced two significant changes (Council of the European Union, 2007). Firstly, Africa is treated by the EU as a single continent for the first time. This addresses the long-­standing fragmentation of EU–Africa relations, split between the Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA) for sub-­Saharan Africa and the

in The European Union in Africa
Marcel H. Van Herpen

Populists seem to rely on an eighteenth-century theory of direct democracy, inspired by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. This theory presupposes that there exists a “common good” which can be known to each rational individual. Citizens – as rational individuals – not only know this “common good” but they also want its realization. It is, therefore, sufficient that all citizens vote and express their rational “common will” ( volonté générale ) to realize the “common good” or, at least, to take measures which promote the common good. I will label this theory a “theory of

in The end of populism
Matt Qvortrup

question will be framed more narrowly, can referendums be compatible with the ideals of deliberative democracy? And, more particularly, if mechanisms can be put in place to facilitate this ideal 2 . In this section, the practice of referendums will be contrasted with other mechanisms such as mini-publics or citizens’ juries (also known as citizens’ assemblies) to see if these can

in Democracy on demand
Matt Qvortrup

M801 QVORTRUP TEXT MAKE-UP.qxd 5/4/07 1:42 PM Page 15 Gary Gary's G4:Users:Gary:Public:Gary 2 Participation and democracy from the Greeks to our times Theoretical and historical aspects of citizen politics Whatever its form, citizen politics is based on the premiss that citizens can play an effective and efficient role in the political process. This is far from a trivial view. It is worth remembering that citizen involvement is historically the exception (Finer 1998): for much of human history, the ordinary people have not been citizens in the modern sense

in The politics of participation
Hugh Atkinson

5 Opening up local democracy beyond the formal realm Introduction I noted in Chapter 4 how the Labour government after 1997 tried to stimulate formal local democracy by various initiatives to boost electoral turnout. But it was, as Wilson notes, ‘particularly keen to emphasise innovation in participatory democracy’ (Wilson, 1999: 248). Attempts to encourage local public participation are by no means new. They enjoyed prominence on the public policy agenda in the 1960s with such initiatives as the Skeffington Report and the establishment of community development

in Local democracy, civic engagement and community
An agenda for change?
Hugh Atkinson

3 The challenge of local democracy, civic engagement and community: an agenda for change? Introduction In the early period of the newly elected Labour government after 1997 the apparent conciliatory tone towards local government was in sharp contrast to the conflicted nature of central/local relations during the Thatcher and Major years. Tighter financial restrictions, rate capping, cuts in central government financial support, increased privatisation of local authority services and loss of policy autonomy all gave the clear impression of a beleaguered local

in Local democracy, civic engagement and community
Marcel H. Van Herpen

Proposal #19: enhance economic democracy Political democracy is often considered something which stands apart from the rest of society. As citizens of the state people have equal rights and equal power. However, as inhabitants of civil society – the place where they live and work – they are not equal and they do not have the same power. Of course, a society of completely equal individuals would not be possible. It would not even be desirable, because such a utopia would soon turn out to be a communist dystopia. However, one cannot deny that there exists a lot

in The end of populism
British attempts at the politicisation of working-class Protestants in Northern Ireland, 1973–75
Tony Craig

8 Stan Orme and the road to ‘Industrial Democracy’: British attempts at the politicisation of working-class Protestants in Northern Ireland, 1973–75 Tony Craig In the months immediately following the collapse of the Sunningdale Agreement it was very much apparent that power sharing as a potential political solution to the problems of Northern Ireland would not work. Whether because of the obvious opposition from its numerous vocal opponents or because of its failure to include those actually conducting the conflict in Northern Ireland, it can be logically stated

in Sunningdale, the Ulster Workers’ Council strike and the struggle for democracy in Northern Ireland
Ami Pedahzur

THIS CHAPTER EXPANDS further on the construct of the ‘defending democracy’ by inquiring into the ‘pro-democratic civil society’ and its role in the context of the ‘defending democracy’ model. The following pages will underscore the significance of the actions of this non-state actor in the ‘defending democracy’s’ transition from the ‘militant’ to the ‘immunised’ model. The fundamental argument here submits that, as a result of its isolation from the State, ‘civil society’ in Israel probably plays a threefold role in safeguarding Israeli

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence