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Scale of demand and the role of competences
Suma S. Athreye

applications tools) accounted for 37 per cent of all software revenues in the UK, compared to 32 per cent for all of Europe. In the UK these are magazines such as PC World. References Athreye, S. S. (2001) ‘Competition, rivalry and innovative behaviour’, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 10(1), pp. 1–22. Grindley, P. (1996), ‘The future of the software industry in the United Kingdom: the limitations of independent production’, in Mowery, D. C. (ed.), The International Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure, New York and Oxford

in Market relations and the competitive process
The Foundation Economy Collective

foundational or a vision of the way its material elements provided Wrecking the foundational 49 the infrastructure of civilised life. Prevailing official and academic concepts of national income and the welfare state were part of a division of labour between economics and sociology which tended to make the foundational economy invisible. In the economy, as in personal life, if we cannot name or otherwise recognise something, we are unlikely to value it. So it was, then, that right across Europe, large parts of the publicly constructed and operated foundational economy

in Foundational economy
The Foundation Economy Collective

economy From this point of view, foundational thinking takes environmental responsibility seriously, arguing the effort must go into redesigning the systems that underpin social consumption. We agree wholeheartedly with Kate Raworth’s (2017) argument in Doughnut Economics that the aim is to secure the ‘social foundation’ of essentials like food, housing and healthcare without damaging ‘Earth’s life supporting systems’ through global warming and environmental degradation. What foundational thinking adds is the idea that how we go about providing that social foundation

in Foundational economy
The resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts
Michael H. Best

education it is to be located somewhere between the departments of engineering, management and economics.3 This chapter seeks to bring ‘technology management’ into the discussion of the reasons for regional growth and decline. My treatment of the notion bridges three institutional domains: business model, production system and skill formation. I use the idea of a ‘productivity triad’, shown in figure 9.1, to focus attention on the interrelationships among the three domains and the mediating link of technology management capability between the inputs and outputs of an

in Market relations and the competitive process
Abstract only
Puritans, Quakers and Methodists
Alison Hulme

individualistic and laissez-​faire economics of thinkers such as Hayek, it is perhaps not surprising that the original collective aspect of Puritan thrift began to give way to a much more individualistic conception of it by the end of the Puritan era –​the late seventeenth century. Indeed, as Yates and Hunter argue, in the post-​Puritan eighteenth century, thrift was ‘more narrowly economic and private in focus than the Puritan vision’ and came with ‘a clear duty towards charity and benevolence, but one that was more concerned with personal propriety and individual material

in A brief history of thrift
Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Smiles and Victorian moralism
Alison Hulme

televisual representations of the working classes, particularly women, in terms of themes such as ‘respectability’.) This is also perhaps an inevitable consequence of the decades that fell in between Disraeli’s version of Toryism and the present day –​decades that saw the introduction of free-​market capitalism, and then from the mid-​ 1970s onwards, the rise of the New Right in global conservative politics that led to the critique of Keynesian economics and welfarism.22,23 The notion of frugality as part of a road to economic freedom, which was so key to Smiles’ thinking

in A brief history of thrift
Costas Simitis

invitation meant that the Prime Minister would take the place of the Greek Finance Minister, Evangelos Venizelos, at the table. The Minister of Finance had no experience in economics; he had not adjusted to the European environment; and had done a fine job of souring relations even with those sympathetic to Greece. The Prime Minister took the leading role in the Greek negotiating party, removed unnecessary frictions and found the successful conclusion to talks that had proved so evasive. Discussions over PSI proceeded at the same time as negotiations over the new Memoran

in The European debt crisis
Implementing the second Memorandum
Costas Simitis

Chapter 32. 45 Le Monde, 26 April 2012, p. 8; ‘Economics’, Kathimerini, 29 April 2012, p. 7. See also p. 336. 46 See P. Ioakimides, Ta Nea, 2 April 2012. 47 See p. 62. 48 See Ta Nea, 5 December 2011, p. 42; E. Georgis, ‘A race for NSRF (Structural Funds)’, Kathimerini, 18 December 2011. Greece.indb 223 3/13/2014 1:56:47 PM 224 Part IV: Coalition, PSI and the second Memorandum 49 See information on the ETEAN website, at www.etean.gr. 50 See Kathimerini, 6 April 2012, p. 10. 51 See also p. 306. 52 See also p. 316. Greece.indb 224 3/13/2014 1:56:47 PM

in The European debt crisis
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

’s presidency, would remain in office – despite a long history of political, policy and personal conflict between Habibie and Ginandjar. Perhaps what pleased the IMF (not to mention a section of the Indonesian business community) most was Habibie’s announcement that the University of Indonesia economics professor Widjojo Nitisastro would have an enhanced advisory role in the government.59 On June 24, the IMF and the Indonesian government signed the “Second Supplementary Memorandum of Economic and Financial Policies” (IMF 1998d) – a revised version of the economic program signed

in The Asian financial crisis
John Wilson

contracts existed.35 It was also reported at that same board meeting that Guerin and ISC were going to be investigated by a Grand Jury, involving accusations that they had been involved in illegal arms shipments to Libya, Iran, Iraq and South Africa.36 This first significant indication that ISC had for many years been involved in covert arms dealing had arisen as a result of other enquiries into the activities of Allivane, a British arms supplier that was being investigated for its links with Iran. This firm had been created in 1986 by Terry Byrne jnr, an economics

in Ferranti: A History