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Abstract only
Simon Mabon

Relations between states in the Persian Gulf have become increasingly complex – and often volatile – amid competing visions of regional security, the role of religion in public affairs, support for Islamist groups, and influence on the world stage. At the heart of much of this is the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran, which has become increasingly fractious, spilling out into new arenas of competition that include new geographic and institutional spaces beyond divided societies that have traditionally provided fertile ground for

in The Gulf States and the Horn of Africa
Amanda Slevin

simultaneously there was a remarkable spread of the industry globally. Oil production began in Baku, Russia in 1873 and in 1901 the first Middle Eastern concession for hydrocarbon exploitation was granted to William Knox D’Arcy for Persia (Iran) (Yergin, 2003, p. 789). Although its production was dominated by US companies, by 1928 Venezuela had become the world’s leading oil exporter (Chomsky, 2003, p. 24). Between 1945 and 1969, the Gulf States, Iran and Iraq 100 Ireland in a global context revealed extraordinary amounts of oil (Odell, 2000, p. 1). While a full estimation

in Gas, oil and the Irish state
Shohei Sato

. These points will be explored with a focus on the 1970s. This is partly because most government sources of the 1980s onwards remain classified. Another consideration is that the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1978/79 fundamentally altered the regional dynamics of the Persian Gulf; something that deserves to be examined in a separate study. Of the various events that took place in the 1970s, four will be closely

in Britain and the formation of the Gulf States
Raymond Hinnebusch

control, co-opted by material benefits and the developmental achievements of the regime, or de-mobilised by fear enforced by a vast network of informers and a pervasive secret police (Norton 1991: 25). State patronage was used to divide the population, favouring or disfavouring groups on the basis of perceived loyalty (Bromley 1994: 139). All opposition from the Kurdish or Shi’a communities was brutally repressed; indeed, during the Iran–Iraq war, 250,000 Shi’a supposedly of Iranian origin were expelled to Iran, Kurdish villages suspected of rebellion were razed and

in The international politics of the Middle East
Brendon J. Cannon and Ash Rossiter

. These struggles also demonstrated that regime type, while important, did not necessarily decide the positions external states took in regional disputes. The conservative Wahhabi Saudi monarchy generally supported the orthodox Christian Ethiopian monarchy against what became an increasingly Marxist Somalia – at least until 1974. At this point, Siad Barre's Somalia made a switch from Moscow's to Washington's camp, throwing out thousands of Soviet advisers, in the hopes that the US and its partners like Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Iran would assist Mogadishu in its own

in The Gulf States and the Horn of Africa
Robert Mason

Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with Iran in July 2015, which could have significantly lowered international oil prices. The main post-2014 adjustment programme, Saudi Vision 2030, was launched by Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman (MBS) in April 2016. This was quickly followed by the detention and arrests of prominent Saudi princes, government ministers, and businesspeople at the Ritz Carlton, Riyadh, from 2017 to 2019, based on an anti-corruption premise that netted the government more than USD 100 billion in income. The fallout from the murder of Jamal Khashoggi from 2

in Oil and the political economy in the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

, Iran, Muslim radicalism, excessive Arab nationalism, ethnic forces, etc. It is hard to recall a power that occasionally does not need to resort to forceful means and weapons. Notwithstanding territorial disputes, water conflicts, ideological strife, and other disagreements, Turkey enjoys a unique and enviable situation in which no one dares to antagonize it. This is not something to depreciate, bearing in mind neighbors like Iraq, Iran, and Syria. Turkey has used the waning of the cold war and the opportunities opened to it thereafter to weaken

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Hoda Katebi

as delicately and intentionally balanced as I knew the line of questioning towed by any interviewer asking me questions on live TV in the US would be. Well, or so I thought. 214 QURESHI PRINT.indd 214 24/09/2020 10:17 That’s because I’ve read THE INTERVIEW Ahead of the interview, they asked for photos of my book Tehran Streetstyle, which I sent. I was invited to speak about my work in the fashion industry: specifically, photography from my book celebrating illegal fashion in Iran (and challenging Western Orientalist narratives but that part was clearly lost on

in I Refuse to Condemn
Abstract only
From enthusiasm to fanaticism
Andrew Poe

, Third Earl of Shaftesbury, A Letter Concerning Enthusiasm (1708) New political spirits From October 10–19, 1977, the Kanun-e nevisandagan-e Iran – the left oppositional group, known in English as the Writers’ Association of Iran – hosted a series of poetry readings. Every evening, beginning around 8 p.m., authors and poets and students and

in Political enthusiasm
Hanna Pfeifer

Introduction On 3 January 2020, Iranian general Qassem Soleimani was killed in a US drone strike in Baghdad in a targeted killing operation. Besides being a general in the Iranian military forces, he is also considered to have been the second most important political figure in Iranian leadership after Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. At the same time, however, he was the head of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps's (IRGC's) Quds Force (QF). While the QF had been sanctioned as a terrorist entity since October 2007, it was only the

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition