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Tom Gallagher

the court decided not to impose any further penalty such as depriving her of her pension rights. 37 The crisis had erupted against a background of corruption scandals in France which indicated shortcomings in public ethics as the Mitterrand era was replaced by that of Jacques Chirac, President of France from 1995 to 2007. In the ‘wise men’ report, most attention had focused on Edith Cresson, the Commissioner for Research, Science and Technology. An unpopular figure at home in France, she left office after less than one year as Prime Minister in 1991–92 and was

in Europe’s path to crisis
Andy Smith

adds into the equation that the main French aviation engine manufacturer SNECMA (now Safran) pushed strongly to equip the Rafale and thus establish a key partnership with Dassault, and that Jacques Chirac (a leading Gaullist, Prime Minister 1974–76 and 1986–88, then President 1995–2007) was a consistent supporter of Dassault, the choice eventually made now seems totally unsurprising. It is important to recall, however, that given the high costs of this arms programme (46 billion euros for 180 aircraft finally ordered), its destabilization by the abrupt ending of the

in Made in France
Dionyssis G. Dimitrakopoulos

, awareness grew about the challenge of transposition and implementation more broadly (Délégation du Sénat pour l’Union européenne 2001, 15). Jacques Chirac’s prime ministerial circular of May 1986 (see Lequesne 1992, 2:681) reflects this awareness. The process that it organised involved the SGCI, the SGG (Secrétariat Général du Gouvernement – Secretariat General of the Government) and the relevant ministerial departments not least because – as the Conseil d’État noted three years later – problems stemmed in part from the tendency of individual departments to use

in The power of the centre
Isabelle Hertner

presidency of Gaullist President Jacques Chirac, the French constitution was amended, and it now postulates that a referendum be held in order to ratify any future EU enlargement. The only means of bypassing a referendum is to get the agreement of three-​fifths of each legislative chamber in favour of a parliamentary ratification (Rozenberg, 2012), which in the case of Turkey’s EU membership seems highly unlikely. Overall, like Labour (and the SPD, as we will see later on in this chapter), the PS has not formulated a broader vision for the EU’s future. What is more, the PS

in Centre-left parties and the European Union
Shailja Sharma

titles suggest, urged a move away from repentance and towards pride in the French nation. Pascal Bruckner, a philosopher, also joined in this trend, publishing his book La Tyrannie de la pénitence (2006) insisting that that France should escape its thrall to the ‘tyrannie de la pénitence’ (tyranny of guilt) and regain its place in the world. Therefore Sarkozy came to power supported by a groundswell of intellectual and popular support and a determination to move away from Jacques Chirac’s policies of accepting state responsibility for its history, unpalatable as it may

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France
Does popular culture mean popular language?
Nigel Armstrong

any event the obvious fact that the political terms ‘left’ and ‘right’ discussed above are in large measure nation-specific. Almost the entire political landscape in France tilts ‘left’, if by this is meant, in a democratic context, ‘characteristic of greater state intervention’, in all matters: political, economic, social, cultural. Thus the former French President Jacques Chirac, while commonly described by the British media as centre-right, could certainly be seen as left-leaning in his opposition to free-market reforms; when in office he went on record by

in Imagining the popular in contemporary French culture
Paul Copeland

the Finnish Presidency continued with its preparations for the 7 November Extraordinary Council Meeting, as the informal messages from French, Italian and Spanish civil servants was that the official line was part of the negotiation game and that there was some room for manoeuvre.34 It then came as something of a surprise to the Finnish Presidency when on 6 November French President Jacques Chirac declared on national television that he and his allies were unprepared to negotiate on the opt-out and that it was important to respect the opinion of the trade unions

in EU enlargement, the clash of capitalisms and the European social dimension
Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz, and Julian Cooper

the Polish newspaper, Gazeta Wyborcza, and the Polish television channel TVP (14 January 2002), http://194.226.82.50/text/appears/2002/01/ 28773.shtml (last accessed 25 July 2005). Bacon 03 3/2/06 10:24 AM Page 71 The Chechen conflict 14 Ibid. See also Speech by President Putin and Questions and Answers during the Joint Press Conference with the French President Jacques Chirac (15 January 2002), http://194.226.82.50/text/appears/2002/01/28774.shtml (last accessed 25 July 2005). 15 The Annual Address of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal

in Securitising Russia
Stephen Benedict Dyson

given the difference in power between the US and the UK: In life, the person who owns the car and employs the chauffeur tends to decide whether they are going to drop you off at home or at the end of the street. And I think it’s just straight power politics. Our support was welcomed, and our friendship valued, and our words listened to, but there was no imperative to actually take them on board.144 Although Blair attempted to play the role of ‘bridge’ with Europe, this was, for Blunkett, impossible given the attitude of other major European powers: ‘Jacques Chirac’s

in The Blair identity
Tom Gallagher

process of all future NATO members.22 Early next year, on the eve of the US entry into Iraq, Romania was one of ten NATO candidates which signed a declaration backing the impending US action. In February 2003 France’s Jacques Chirac roundly criticised the candidates for missing ‘a good occasion to keep silent’. He referred to their ‘very superficial attitude’, adding that, ‘if they intended to diminish their chances of reaching Europe, they could not find a better method’. In particular, he singled out Romania and Bulgaria, saying the two neighbours ‘were particularly

in Romania and the European Union