power in whatever visible form, certainly if it is not clearly inspired by pure and indeed altruistic motives – sacro egoismo in reverse, as it were. After the founding of the Federal Republic in 1949, the West German leadership has been consistently keen to dispel any fear that it might not have learned its historical lesson and to prove itself a cooperative, fair-minded and well-meaning partner in its external dealings. Importantly, this attitude was backed, indeed expected, by much of the electorate.
Under its first chancellor KonradAdenauer (in office from
Japan became ‘prototypes’ of ‘a new type of international power’ that – more by necessity than choice – had accepted to cooperate in the pursuit of international objectives. 38 Although the term ‘civilian power’ was first used to describe German foreign policy at the end of the Cold War in 1989, the FRG found itself on this path from its inception. Key foreign policy decision-makers of the new German Federal Republic – and particularly its first Chancellor, KonradAdenauer – supported this re-orientation of German foreign policy. 39 In contrast to other role
-sided institutional framework that it brought into being – Assembly, Court, Ministerial Council, and High Authority – has continued in the form of the Parliament, Court, Council of Ministers, and Commission.’ 58 The chapter documents how crucial postwar leaders, particularly the first President of the European High Authority Jean Monnet, French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, and German Chancellor KonradAdenauer, built on their transnational collective memories to found the first European institutions. In so doing, it shows how their shared remembrance of the rupture of 1945 was
Party, Arseniy Yatsenyuk, called for protests
(dubbed #Euromaidan) on his Twitter account. It was widely expected that the 2015
presidential election would be won, easily and without irregularities, by the opposition,
probably with the boxer, Vitaly Klitschko, as its candidate. Washington, however, was not
keen on this prospect, because Klitschko and members of his UDAR party had been
groomed by the German CDU’s KonradAdenauer Foundation. With people out in
the street, Klitschko now joined the other opposition groups, including Svoboda under
Tyagnybok (the only real
by the richer to the
poorer Länder, which not even the Germans in the Economic Council in
the Bizonia had approved at that time. They saw a system of grants-in-aid
on the American model as a better solution that would not make the Länder so dependent on the federation for their taxes. The Land governments,
on the other hand, took the opposite position that their autonomy would
be threatened by a system of federal grants but protected by the proposal
to require approval of finance legislation in the Bundesrat.
While KonradAdenauer and the CDU seemed willing to
Mercosur ”, Nueva Sociedad .
Freytag , A.
Draper , P.
Fricke , S.
( 2014 ). The Impact of the TTIP: Economic Effects on Transatlantic Partners, Third Countries and the Global Trade Order . Vol. 1 . Berlin : KonradAdenauer Stiftung
by de Gaulle and the German Chancellor at the time,
The insistence reflected the unwillingness of the French establishment
to recognise not only that France could no longer claim to lead Germany,
and hence Europe, via the European Union, but that now Germany was
assuming the role of primus inter pares (first among equals). Paris could
do little about Germany’s gradually assuming the leading role in the
European Union and working in favour of a federal EU structure in
which Germany’s larger population would give it a correspondingly
to Mr Victor
Martinez-Garzón (NATO archivist) for this document].
7 Ibid., record-MC-042-71, summary record of NATO’s Military Committee
meeting, 24 September 1971.
8 Stuttgarter Zeitung, 3 February 1972, in Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung,
Sankt Augustin (near Bonn), Pressedokumentation, file: ‘Staaten, Irland,
9 NATO Archive, C-R (72) 28, summary record of NATO Council meeting,
4 July 1972.
11 Ibid., record-MC-032-72, special record of NATO’s Military Committee,
28 July 1972.
12 Ibid., PO(72)392, ‘Temporary
it faced, the West German state was
unlikely to fail because of the absence among democrats of any will to,
or understanding of, power.14
In the first elections of the Federal Republic, the Christian
Democratic party (CDU) scraped a narrow victory. From the outset,
Chancellor KonradAdenauer was convinced that his government had
to commit itself unequivocally to the United States. The pursuit of reunification had indeed to be a reason of state but it could only be securely
realised, Adenauer believed, within the framework of the Atlantic
alliance. Anybody who