Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian
ten articles of
the first convention have grown to 559 articles in the version currently in force.
In other words, they are now a matter for civilian and military legal experts, who
have material open to varied and contradictory readings.
Let us go back to IHL’s origins, which can give us an idea of how difficult it
was to apply IHL long before what are now described as its more serious and frequent
contemporary violations. Humanitarian law is part of a long
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
’ on the side.
To accomplish this, local staff draw from their diverse experience and backgrounds. Some have friends and family in political networks or have political histories themselves – experience in the political wings of armed groups or local government. Others have military pasts: thousands of Congolese youth have been going in and out of armed groups for several decades. NGOs and armed groups are key employers in the region: some humanitarians have histories in rebel groups, some rebels have histories as humanitarians. In addition, it is striking how many
identifies the threats to American national interests ( ibid .:
25–6): 1) Russia and China, the two great ‘revisionist powers’; 2) North
Korea and Iran, two ‘rogue states’ that undermine geopolitical equilibrium in
Northeast Asia and the Middle East; 3) ‘Jihadist terrorist groups’ and
international criminal organisations that propagate violence and traffic drugs and arms.
The document offers an extensive list of actions to be undertaken by the US to achieve
strategic objectives and confront rivals, from controlling borders to increasing military
applause of numerous
humanitarian NGOs, it led a multinational military task force into Somalia, with the stated aim
of protecting relief operations. These humanitarian wars, and others that followed during the
1990s, were waged not only to respond to a perceived evil but also to define good and evil and
the limits of acceptable behaviour ( Fiori, 2018 ).
Other Western governments also now looked to humanitarian agencies as allies in the liberal
transformation of the developing world. During the Cold War, humanitarian NGOs had generally
as far as Colin Powell when he told an assembly of relief
NGOs that they were a ‘tremendous force multiplier’ for the US military, but even
in the Donald Trump administration that sense of things is by no means wholly absent.
But if the view from Washington, Brussels, etc. may not have changed that
much, the view of Washington, Brussels, etc., most certainly has.
For all its bad faith, its selective implementation and, in the battle spaces of the Long War,
its instrumentalisation in the service of military strategy, development aid from the
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
discourteously with Bolivia and
CA: Chico summed things up marvellously, in a way that everyone could understand.
But if we think in strategic terms, this approach is in our interests. It is in our interests
that we maintain pacific relations. Sure, there are limits. If we had done everything that
Paraguay wanted… we accepted about a four-fold increase in the price of electricity; they
wanted a ten-fold increase! That would have created a real problem for Brazil.
JF: You mentioned Haiti. In 2004, Brazil took on military leadership of
practical reliance on humanitarian organisations and why this
is particularly significant when reporting on the Congolese conflicts, and what
impact it might have on the articles being produced.
I should be more specific about what the word ‘journalist’ is
referring to in this article. In his thesis on the influence of French military
communications on media coverage of the war in Afghanistan, Romain Mielcarek
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell
suffering ought to be pursued, with different operating assumptions and models
( Donini, 2010 : S220). The expression
includes the multibillion dollar Northern/Western humanitarian movement, rooted in
various traditions of charity and philanthropy, as well as local actors, Islamic
humanitarian organisations and even military actors. In this paper, we are concerned
primarily with the formal humanitarian system, though we make reference to
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian
of emblems, logos, and agency T-shirts to distinguish themselves not only from
military actors but also from other civilian actors, notably those that do not
adhere to the principles of humanitarian action ( Sutton, 2018 ). Acceptance strategies also include
dialogue with various interlocutors. The International Committee of the Red
Cross (ICRC) seeks to secure access and build relationships with a range of
state and non-state interlocutors
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South
Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper
early retreat by the military
force in place, leaving, as Human Rights Watch put it, ‘civilians behind to
face the brunt of attacks from forces bent on pillage and revenge’ ( Human Rights Watch, 2014 : 21). In Bentiu and
Leer, violence associated with the dynamics of offensives extended to the hospitals
run or supported by the Dutch section of MSF (MSF-Holland, hereafter MSF-H). What
motivated these specific acts of violence? And what were the effects of these