’s in Paris, Pialat’s in the northern mining country
around Lens, using relatively unknown or non-professional actors.
Both filmmakers even had the same impulse to salvage otherwise
unusable footage by having it serve as the background to the opening
credits. Yet a closer look at the two films suggests Pialat’s more radical
realism, which links him to Jean Rouch and Jacques Rozier.
Truffaut’s desire to make a film that resembled a documentary
without being one, reflected his admiration for the neo-realism of
Rossellini, despite his avowed preference for fiction over
ella , what Almodóvar refers to as ‘tone’.
Poetic techniques are used skilfully to equivocate, as Benigno does, and constantly undermine spectators’ assumptions. Almodóvar writes in his notes on Hable con ella :
Disrupted time and the mixing of diverse narrative units function best when the action is mental or internal, or occurs in another dimension, as in the films of David Lynch. In this kind of ‘fantastic neorealism’ or ‘naturalism of the absurd’ in which I move, plot ruptures suppose a kind of punch in the eyes of the spectator since he’s already
Notes on developing a photo-ethnographic practice in Basilicata
developing themes of his work – were in different ways influenced by neorealism and their work had wide circulation in Italian printed media – especially newspapers and magazines. These outlets are in fact more substantial than the actual use of images in De Martino’s books, which was limited. During the time of his research trips during the 1950s, De Martino often published write-ups in popular magazines – Espresso Mese, Radiocorriere, Il Mondo – in which the photographic component had a similar role to the photo essays published by American periodicals such as Life
’ realism and liberalism as opposed to
neo-realism and neo-liberalism.
An example is C. Douzinas and R. Warrington,
Justice Miscarried: Ethics and Aesthetics in Law (New
York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994). While postmodernism is usually
presented as being irreconcilable with ethics, Bauman notes that as
political link to the United
States’, 44 but
that political agreement did not always translate into material
contributions. In formulating policy over Bosnia during the 1990s, the
Bush and Clinton administrations ‘typically compromised with or
accommodated the Europeans’ in an effort to preserve alliance
unity, but Papayanou finds little clear support for neorealism or
representational persuasiveness, is, furthermore,
reinforced by the use of non-professional actors (Alfonso Blanco
‘O Padriño’, the altar boy; the student, José Luis
Desiré; the pilgrim, Manuel Seone; and the priest, Manuel
Troitiño Marino, who plays himself, were all locals). The
combination of naturalism and artifice – indeed the documentary
style itself – recalls Italian neo-realism, the key reiterated
Naples is a Battlefield (1944); The Bespoke Overcoat
life and tasting freedom.
Technically the film is very accomplished, edited with a
sensitivity to pace and rhythm. The music, as Cocteau used to say of all good film music,
seems simultaneously to drive the film forward and to be driven forward by
the film. The raw photography prefigures post-war neo-realism, where Italian
film-makers like Rossellini and De Sica will explore the social consequences
of the war and echo the
vigorous commitment to everyday working-class subject
matter and a uniquely personal film style. Deeply indebted to the poetic
realism of Humphrey Jennings and the urban immediacy of Italian neo-realism
(as opposed to the sociological, 1930s documentary tradition of John
Grierson), Reisz’s Free Cinema films, Momma Don’t Allow
(1956, co-directed with Tony Richardson) and We Are the Lambeth Boys (1959) laid the
basis for a
flourished in the aftermath of the Second World War. This cinematic
trend spans across a period of more than fifty years and includes films
cutting across diverse film traditions and movements in film history.
Voyage to Italy (Rossellini, 1953) and La Strada (Fellini,
1954), two iconic films of Italian neo-realism, find their place within
the tradition of European ‘films of voyage’. In a similar
culture and state behaviour: why Germany confounds neorealism ’, International Organization 53 : 4 ( 1999 ), pp. 765 – 803 ; R. Baumann , V. Rittberger and W. Wagner , ‘ Macht und Machtpolitik. Neorealistische Außenpolitiktheorie und Prognosen über die deutsche Außenpolitik nach der Vereinigung ’, Zeitschrift für Internationale Beziehungen , 6 : 2 ( 1999 ), pp. 245 – 86 .
21 For the foreign policy debate that the 2001 decision triggered, see Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung (ed.), Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte , B11 ( 2004 ); P