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Niilo Kauppi

1 Some theoretical premises of European Union research A major obstacle to an adequate examination of European integration is the definition of political phenomena as requiring either a national or an international relations (IR) approach. The 'theology of realism' preached by some intergovernmentalist political scientists (Hoffmann 1982; Moravcsik 1993, 1998) and neorealists in IR-theory (Waltz 1979) leads to misleading oversimplifications, reinforcing the division between national and supranational. In academe, this institutionalised division has prevented

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen

Part I Research design and historical background The German out-of-area debate did not, as an external observer might have expected, evolve around the question of re-unified Germany’s national security interests in the post-Cold War era. Instead, it represented a battle over the lessons of the past and the expectations of Germany’s partners. The debate looked backward much more than forward, and evolved around negative notions of what dangers Germany needed to avoid rather than positive notions of what could be achieved through engaging the Bundeswehr in

in Germany, pacifism and peace enforcement
Linda and Jim revisited
Jane Elliott
Jon Lawrence

tense, anxious and struggling life of Linda and Jim could hardly be greater. In many ways, the latter couple had more enterprise, initiative and determination to achieve, yet they were oppressed by circumstances they could not control. (Pahl 1984 : 309) In Divisions of Labour Pahl struggled with the dilemma of how to integrate quantitative and qualitative research. He argued that ‘using single quotations from the many different and diverse households that were studied … would have done violence to the complexity that the interviews revealed … quotations

in Revisiting Divisions of Labour
Jean-François Caron

reported that the Soviets were performing clinical tests with similar drugs. From these examples, it is clear that the military has not hesitated to overrule ethical norms with regard to this type of research. This is why many feel that the military-industrial complex is untrustworthy when it comes to the treatment of soldiers as individuals, when according to Kant's moral philosophy they should never be treated merely as a means

in A theory of the super soldier
Timothy Longman

( Fédération Internationale des Droits de l’Homme et al. , 1993 ). Just over a year later, of course, supporters of the Rwandan government launched a wave of violence whose status as genocide could not be disputed. In just over three months, soldiers, police, and civilian militia groups killed an estimated 80 per cent of the Tutsi then living in Rwanda. In the aftermath of this horrific violence, HRW and FIDH undertook a joint research project to explain how genocide on this magnitude could be possible just a few decades after the pledge of ‘never again’ that emerged from

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
From theory to advocacy
Andrea Boggio
Cesare P. R. Romano

10 Freedom of research and the right to science: from theory to advocacy Andrea Boggio and Cesare P. R. Romano Although the right to science, which includes both the right of scientists to do research and the right of everyone to benefit from that research, was recognised internationally as early as 1948, it is arguably the least known, discussed and enforced international human right. As a result, its binding normative content is not settled and needs to be better clarified and specified. Progress at the conceptual level has been made in the last few years but

in The freedom of scientific research