The peace process in Northern Ireland has been widely praised for resolving the longest running post-war conflict in Europe. However, there is often misunderstanding about what happened in Northern Ireland and why. Drawing on a wide range of sources, this book offers an analysis of the origin, development and outcome of the peace process. It argues that the changes that Northern Ireland experienced from the early 1990s can only be understood if they are examined in the context of the time in which they occurred. It challenges some of the criticisms of the peace process that have emerged in recent years and argues these are based on either a misunderstanding of the purpose of the process or on information that was not available to the main actors at the time. The peace process was primarily an attempt to persuade those groups using violence to abandon their armed campaigns, rather than a specific attempt to create a fairer or more just society. The question became how this could be achieved and at what cost? The book charts and explains the ongoing challenges faced by Northern Ireland as it seeks to transition from a conflict to a post-conflict society. It highlights the lack of trust that has been a continuing and, at times, debilitating feature of the region’s politics since 1998. It concludes by considering the extent to which Brexit offers a challenge that might undermine the progress that has been made during Northern Ireland’s ‘messy’ and unpredictable peace process.
2001, the Philippines became a
frontline state in the fight against terrorism in Southeast Asia
(Radics, 2004 ). Multiple bombings in urban
areas as well as in Mindanao caused the government to take terrorism
seriously as a homeland security threat. The links between al-Qaeda
and local secessionist movements such as the Moro Islamic Liberation
Front (MILF) became so obvious
José Amedo Foucé, former Police superintendent, 2018
Terrorism has, in the past three decades or so, become the focus for much innovative work across social sciences. Having long been considered a topic of little academic moment, terrorism has become an issue of major scholarly concern. The outcome has been a sudden and massive increase in the quality and quantity of work conducted in the field, very much characterised by sharp differences of emphasis and interpretations, reflecting the varying disciplinary backgrounds and
various forms of dissent (from
citizen protests to terrorism), I turn to the mechanisms through which
the citizenry can be consulted other than the ballot box.
Thus far I have focused discussion on two aspects of citizen politics,
those which I have called ‘talking’ and ‘voting’. But, as I said in the
Introduction, there is a third aspect: fighting. Though it is less celebrated
that the other two, especially by those in power, it is important to
acknowledge this third means of participating, not least because there
are indications that people
Brazilian approaches to terrorism and counterterrorism in the post-9/11 era
Jorge M. Lasmar
More than ever, specialists are turning to regional specificities when trying to understand how particular terrorist groups think and act. Terrorist groups commonly adopt radicalized transnational ideologies and rhetoric. However, in most cases, we see that terrorist groups not only inscribe their local grievances onto the larger globalized rhetoric but also adapt their modus operandi to the regional realities of their particular theatre(s) of action.
The same can be said about governmental responses to terrorism. It is
Uganda's counterterrorism policy can only be understood in the context of President Yoweri Museveni's national and regional ambitions. Throughout his long tenure as president of Uganda, Museveni has courted the support and aid of the West in order to strengthen his position as president and to increase his stature within East Africa. While economic development dominated the 1990s in Uganda, the focus of the 2000s has been security and, more specifically, terrorism. In the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Museveni was the
In recent decades, Western states have overdeveloped counter-terrorist structures. Policy debates on counter-terrorism (CT hereafter) are based on problem solving, anticipation and orthodox epistemologies. As programmes for countering violent extremism (CVE) globalise ( Kundnani, 2015 ), much of what is being done across countries reproduces a policy paradigm – a set of ideas and worldviews that become hegemonic to underpin political interventions ( Hall, 1993 ). While this paradigm offers a clear-cut diagnosis of problems and solutions, it also
Organized crime and terrorism
undermine stable and predictable socio-economic and political
conditions. A core function of the state is to protect its citizens
and institutions. Indeed, the state should be empowered to act in
the defense of its interests (Walker, 2009 ).
An important aspect of the state’s safeguarding function is
A genealogical study of terrorism and counter-terrorism discourses
Tracing the discursive origins of ‘(violent) extremism’: terrorism, radicalisation and extremism
Recently, the terms terrorism , radicalisation and extremism have been utilised interchangeably by scholars, decision makers and policy practitioners to interpret the so-called ‘terrorist threat’. The tendency is to increasingly merge these terms into a sole discursive framework that is perceived to affect the modern epistemological understanding of terrorism and the subsequent practices of countering (violent) extremism in many Western countries ( Richards
Following the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks, the so-called ‘psychological terrain’ was seen as the crucial counter-terrorism ‘battleground’ where
compliance might be created or conflict influenced in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Much has been written about the ‘hearts and minds’ campaigns of the governments of the United States and United Kingdom. Yet this book will illuminate
an unseen story, that of the planning behind the propaganda, from the mouths
of the key planners themselves. It traces their efforts to adapt propaganda
systems that were