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The role of the United Nations Security Council
Alice Martini

Introduction Counter-terrorism has undergone a significant shift since its ‘post-9/11’ inception. In the last decade, the language and the policies of the ‘war on terrorism’ started losing legitimacy. Maintaining this discursive structure and its practices meant that the discourse had to be reformulated against new challenges. The discourse on terrorism is now replete with references to radicalisation and extremism. These categories have become central in fighting terrorism but do not present a lesser grade of incongruency than their predecessors. Despite

in Encountering extremism
David Brown

Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU’s Third Pillar, propelled into the limelight by the events of September 11 and maintained by terrorist incidents in Spain and the UK. In the same period, the organisation’s most extensive enlargement, to embrace the eight CEE states, Malta and Cyprus, was undertaken. In fact, the two processes – widening the EU

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement

In the social sciences, recognition is considered a means to de-escalate conflicts and promote peaceful social interactions. This volume explores the forms that social recognition and its withholding may take in asymmetric armed conflicts. It discusses the short- and long-term risks and opportunities which arise when local, state and transnational actors recognise armed non-state actors (ANSAs), mis-recognise them or deny them recognition altogether.

The first part of the volume contextualises the politics of recognition in the case of ANSAs. It provides a historical overview of recognition regimes since the Second World War and their diverging impacts on ANSAs’ recognition claims. The second part is dedicated to original case studies, centring on specific conflict phases and covering ANSAs from all over the world. Some examine the politics of recognition during armed conflicts, others in conflict stalemates, and others still in mediation and peace processes. The third part of the volume discusses how the politics of recognition impacts practitioners’ engagement with conflict parties, gives an outlook on policies vis-à-vis ANSAs, and sketches trajectories for future research in the field.

The volume shows that, while non-recognition prevents conflict transformation, the recognition of armed non-state actors may produce counterproductive precedents and new modes of exclusion in intra-state and transnational politics.

Priya Sara Mathews and Mathews McNeil- Willson

Introduction France has undergone a process of securitization highly colored by its colonial experience. Counter-terrorism – whilst deeply racialized in all European states – has been acutely felt by French Muslims, who have faced a coalescence of factors: a more aggressive Catholic-secularism coupled with increasingly narrow and

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Roel Meijer

Introduction This chapter will analyse the Saudi counterterrorism discourse in the period between 2003 and 2010. Much was written on these programmes at the time, but the religious side of the programme has seldom been investigated in depth. 1 This period is an interesting one, because for the first time Saudi Arabia was itself confronted with terrorism. It developed a two-pronged strategy: a ‘soft’ ideological one and a ‘hard’, repressive one. It is especially the soft measures and the counterterrorist religious discourse of the state that has

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Abstract only
Sophie A. Whiting

violence. The logic in using coercive tactics is that the use of harsh policies to punish armed groups would deter future acts. The overarching rationale with this approach is that when states respond aggressively they develop a reputation for being tough on terrorism and deter further violence; whilst those states that do not respond forcefully are seen as giving in to demands, and develop a reputation for being weak.21 Alternatively, states can adopt a more conciliatory approach by focusing on the root causes of violence in an effort to reduce the ‘incentives’ to use

in Spoiling the peace?
The evolution and implications of the ‘Xinjiang mode’ of counterterrorism
Michael Clarke

‘Xinjiang mode’ of counterterrorism which combines the counter-insurgency (COIN) models adopted by the West (primarily the United States) in its ‘War on Terrorism’ with China's own ‘public security’ and ‘governance’ models to, in effect, create a counterterrorism strategy defined by militarization, surveillance, and ideological ‘remoulding’. The central objective of the ‘Xinjiang mode’ is to not only prevent ‘terrorism’ before it occurs but also to pre-empt its very possibility by identifying and ‘remoulding’ individuals who display ‘abnormal’ behaviours

in The Xinjiang emergency
Security aid, impunity and Muslim alienation
Jeremy Prestholdt

established pattern of al Shabaab actions. Events at Westgate encapsulated the recurring dynamics of terrorism and counterterrorism in Kenya. First, the attackers chose a ‘soft’ target. As in the past, this resulted in maximum media attention and a high number of civilian deaths, non-Muslims in particular. Second, despite warnings that such an attack was imminent, the assault evidenced a slow and uncoordinated response by security forces. 6 Finally, the attackers imagined their actions to be retaliation for those of Kenyan security forces domestically and in

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Disputed boundaries of a postcolonial state
Evan A. Laksmana and Michael Newell

This chapter seeks to describe how Indonesia has dealt with the threat of terrorism in the post-9/11 era. However, beyond merely identifying the country's counterterror policies, the analysis is placed within the broader context of how the state has historically dealt with internal security threats. This chapter argues that, contrary to the rhetoric of the ‘war on terror’, Indonesia's counterterrorism policies are neither a specific response to transnational terror networks, nor simply a by-product of the post-9/11 era. Instead, Indonesia

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Abstract only
Reproducing the discourse
Richard Jackson

So FAR I HAVE EXAMINED the primary narratives at the heart of the ‘war on terrorism’ – the way in which language constructs the events of September 11, 2001, and the way it creates identities, threats and the counter-terrorist war. In this sense, I have been examining the constituent parts that taken together make up the whole. In order to take the analysis to the

in Writing the war on terrorism