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John Privilege

unacceptable. More interesting perhaps was the use of language and terminology borrowed from eugenics. Harty did not just consider the moral choice between the life of mother and child. The national value to society of each life was weighed; the potential benefits of a fertile mother against the potential genius and eventual fertility of a child. Indeed, the whole article was set within the context of eugenic fears and concepts.97 He was not the first to display sympathy with eugenics. In 1911, Thomas Slater, a professor from St Beuno’s Jesuit College in Wales and an

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925
Fatigue and the fin de siècle
Steffan Blayney

social Darwinism and eugenics at the end of the nineteenth century introduced the prospect of improving the efficiency of the race en masse . While Geoffrey Searle long ago associated the eugenics movement in Britain with the ‘quest for national efficiency’, ideas of energy and human productivity have been underexamined in histories of eugenic discourse. 73 In Francis Galton's project of racial regeneration, the category of ‘energy’ was central. In the work in which he introduced the term ‘eugenics’, in 1883, Galton

in Progress and pathology
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

enduring changes to our understanding of disability. As the rise of eugenics-based statistics worked to create a standard of ‘normalcy’, increased measurement and statistical analysis created a symbiotic relationship between what could be defined as the ‘normal’ body and the ‘disabled’ body. 12 As this book will demonstrate, such strict dichotomies were challenged by individuals who disputed their status as normal or disabled, especially in compensation disputes. Davis focused especially on deafness to argue that ‘the problem is the way that normalcy is constructed to

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

eugenics, race, and public health at a time of heightened anxieties over Britain as a degenerating ‘C3’ nation. 10 This chapter is about bodies of colour, of bodies saturated with radiation and visualised as literally ‘photogenic’ (light-generating). The words ‘radiant’, ‘glowing’, and ‘bronzed’ remain part of everyday language to describe suntan, they are now naturalised and normalised descriptors, but during the early twentieth

in Soaking up the rays
Maria K. Bachman and Paul C. Peterson

, ‘Man’s most sacred duty, and at the same time his most glorious opportunity is to promote the maximum fulfilment of the evolutionary process on this earth; and this includes the fullest realisation of his own inherent possibilities’ ( Religion 218). The belief that humans have untapped evolutionary potential is also a key component of eugenics. Huxley, in fact, had been a supporter of eugenics throughout his career, although his views on how to improve the human species did evolve over time. 12 While various eugenics programmes and practices were accepted around

in Adapting Frankenstein
Sculpture, sport and the nation at the Crystal Palace, 1854–1918
Kate Nichols

about bodily difference, racial degeneration and eugenics into its glassy centre. For men and women who read Sandow’s Magazine, and who attended the classes in the School, an umbilical connection was established between the bodies of Greek sculpture, and the ‘[m]anly beauty and muscular strength’ 107 ideal British body. And visitors to the Palace who looked at Greek sculpture might likewise be encouraged by what they saw to take up physical culture. Art and eugenics can work together as ‘mutually reinforcing mechanisms disciplining the body’; Greek art on show in

in After 1851
Children’s health and biosocial power
Kevin Ryan

measures such as the improvement of housing, sewerage and drinking water, but also in the form of eugenic interventions to prevent the birth of children who – according to the science – would grow into ‘degenerate’ and ‘defective’ adults. For contextual reasons examined by Greta Jones (1992), eugenics failed to gain any real traction in Ireland, but that does not mean that it did not play a part in shaping the strategy of hygiene. At the 1911 Congress of the Royal Institute of Public Health for example, held that year in Dublin, the section devoted to Child Study and

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
Jean-François Caron

Nazis’ eugenics policies. It is from this perspective that Robert L. Sinsheimer argues: ‘[t]he old eugenics would have required a continual selection for breeding of the fit, and a culling of the unfit. The new eugenics would permit in principle the conversion of all the unfit to the highest genetic level’ (Sinsheimer, 1992 , p. 145). This thesis has been subjected to numerous criticisms, as the line

in A theory of the super soldier
Indigeneity, bioprecarity and the construction of the embodied self – an artist’s view
Katarina Pirak Sikku and Gabriele Griffin

preoccupations with classifications and the emerging possibilities that statistics afforded. Chambers 20th Century Dictionary rather coyly, or neutrally, defines eugenics as ‘the science of race improvement’ and Chapter 12 in this volume indicates that institutes for such ‘science’ were widespread in the early twentieth century across European countries. One such institute was the State Institute for Racial Biology in Uppsala, Sweden. 1 This institute, in modified form part of the university at which the co-authors of this chapter currently work, features indirectly in

in Bodily interventions and intimate labour
Tanya Cheadle

constituted a significant marker of modernity, a discourse within which, as Rita Felski has noted, ‘the vocabulary of morality and religion ceded ground to the discourse of science’ and ‘homosexuality was redefined as an inborn condition, a medical aberration rather than a form of sin’.13 While Geddes and Thomson confined themselves to the study of heterosexual pairings, their advanced ideas on sexual ethics, ‘romantic eugenics’ and birth control nonetheless constituted an important contribution to turn-of-the-century sexological ideas. The international significance of

in Sexual progressives