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Democratic discourse and the Chartist challenge
Peter Gurney

effect, as the last chapter emphasised. They wanted it so that they could contest the dominance of an abstract market that lorded over them and often, perversely, caused them to go hungry in a land of increasing plenty, as we shall see in the chapter that follows. It was little wonder that their appropriation of democracy cast a long shadow; after Chartism most upper- and middle-class leaders worried that it might never again be possible to elevate the concept so that it could be ‘sterilized to innocuousness’, to borrow Frances Gillespie’s felicitous phrase.5 The

in Wanting and having
Abstract only
The treatment of the young offender
Philip Gillett

Viewed from this middle-class perspective, relative deprivation, aided and abetted by the mass media, fuels working-class crime. The conundrum is that the ideal solution would be to eliminate deprivation, reducing the relative advantages of being middle class in the process. This is unlikely to tempt a middle-class electorate seeking a reduction in crime. The mass media make an easier scapegoat. Working-class youth presents a

in The British working class in postwar film
Abstract only
James G. Patterson

America to obtain the lifting of trade restrictions and legislative independence for the Irish parliament.1 These dual objectives were achieved in 1779 and 1782 respectively. Yet the executive branch of the Irish government remained responsible to the Imperial cabinet. Moreover, the Viceroy retained the ability to manipulate the corrupt Irish parliament through the liberal distribution of patronage. Most importantly, the Reform Act of 1782 failed to address the aspirations of the Protestant middle classes, which largely remained excluded from the political process. By

in In the wake of the great rebellion
Open Access (free)
Bridget Byrne and Carla De Tona

. There are two distinct questions in this ambivalence of the utility or relevance of class within the sociological literature. One is largely focused on identity: can it be possible to talk about class if many declare either that class is irrelevant to them, or if, in the everyday usage, people put themselves in categories which a sociologist might want to disagree with (Are we all middle class – taken to mean ‘ordinary’ – now? Has class become irrelevant?). Yet at the same time as this question is asked, it is clear that significant social and economic inequalities

in All in the mix
Abstract only
Manliness and the home
Joanne Begiato

“home” to do much for a man.’ He concluded, ‘the man who has “home” in his heart, will, by God’s blessing turn out well’.1 In 1857 the same magazine contained a poem titled ‘Come Back as Soon as You Can’, illustrated by a top-hatted man bidding farewell to his daughter at the garden gate. The middle-class poet announces that his daughter always says goodbye to him by imploring, ‘As soon as you can, come home.’ He advises the businessman to ‘get home’, since that is where ‘a man and a father be’.2 As with working-class men throughout this book, they were instructed on

in Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900
Ginger S. Frost

with a man in a position of a father to a younger woman (such as stepfather) were problematic. Both of these types of relationships could be frankly exploitative and shameful, though the Victorian state rarely dealt effectively with them. In contrast, many people in all classes saw no harm in marriages between in-laws.3 Unsurprisingly, then, most cases of ‘incest’ were affinal, even in the ‘low dens’ of the working class. Prohibited degrees and the working class Most middle-class Victorians assumed the incest was primarily a problem for the poor, though they were

in Living in sin
Reflections on the erosion of a paradigmatic case of social democracy
Jenny Andersson

legacy of the Third Way is exerting a heavy influence on social democracy’s capacity to respond to crisis. The chapter considers three dimensions to this: first, there is the question of ideology and world-view and particularly the way that social democratic ideology has, since the 1990s, been oriented around market making and the middle-class subject; second, there is the question of institutional change and the privatisations and financialisation of the Swedish model; and, third, an issue that is not dealt with specifically in the A paradigmatic case of social

in European social democracy during the global economic crisis
Michaela Benson

exclusively from the British middle classes. In this respect, their emphasis on the diversity of the British population in the Lot can be understood as an effort to claim their individual migrations as being distinctive – prompted by their own subjective circumstances – rather than as an accurate statement about the diversity of the population. Indeed, this focus on distinctiveness is also evident in their claims to the exclusivity of the Lot as a destination. The manner in which the initial decision to migrate was conceptualized was revealing of the lives that my

in The British in rural France
Abstract only
Helena Ifill

’s depiction of social hierarchy. Both the affluent upper-​class Sir Rupert Lisle and the poor lower-​class James Arnold begin as unappealing children with several disagreeable, and apparently hereditary, personality traits. They also happen to resemble each other to the extent that the villain, Major Varney, kidnaps Rupert and persuades James’s disreputable father to let him present James, some years later, to Rupert’s mother Claribel as her missing son in order to take advantage of Rupert’s inheritance. Rupert is taken away to be raised as an orphan in a middle-​class

in Creating character
Dogs, pigs and police, 1865–80
Juliana Adelman

enforcer of middle-class values. The story of dogs and pigs also shows how middle-class Dubliners sought to resolve the human dilemma created by conflicting desires. On the one hand, they wanted to keep dogs and eat pork. On the other hand, they wanted to reduce the urban nuisances created by dogs and pigs. The solution was to regulate animal-keeping, changing who could own a pig or a dog in Dublin. Such regulations represent a form of governmentality: they sought to cement ideas of acceptable urban street life. 6 They also demonstrate the ways in which regulation of

in Civilised by beasts