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By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

An analysis of post-2006 Timor-Leste
Sarah Smith

constructs women as victims of men’s violence against each other, which fosters insecurity (war), as well as specifically men’s violence against women. In the victim narrative, men have agency and engage in war, whereas women are victims of war. The victim narrative of women’s protection is a further gendering of women into passive roles and, conversely, men into active roles. The focus of this narrative tends to be on women’s experiences of sexual violence both in times of conflict and during post-conflict reconstruction. The most frequently cited evidence of an

in The politics of identity
Cara Diver

victim of domestic violence and 18 per cent of women reported that they had been subjected to domestic violence, including actual physical violence, threats of violence, mental cruelty, sexual abuse, and deliberate damage to their property. Of those women who had been abused, many had experienced multiple forms of abuse and 11 per cent had experienced actual physical and/or sexual violence. The injuries resulting from the physical abuse were often severe, and included broken bones, head injuries, loss of consciousness, and miscarriages, and the mental health effects of

in Marital violence in post-independence Ireland, 1922–96
Paromita Chakravarti and Jhelum Roy

continuities rather than ruptures in feminist mobilisations against sexual violence. Cautioning against the danger of trying to tell a ‘single story’ of Indian feminism and dividing feminists into generational binaries, Srila Roy ( 2017 , 2018 ) has called for a re-evaluation of the Indian women’s movement as a site of contradictions, multiple voices and contesting experiences. But while it may be useful to situate the List in the history of the Indian women’s movement, it is also important to contextualise it within

in Intimacy and injury
Unveiling American Muslim women in Rolla Selbak’s Three Veils (2011)
Alberto Fernández Carbajal

Islamic notions of feminine modesty. In making the film gravitate around these three young women and their individual yet enmeshed perspectives, Selbak explores different challenges assailing Muslim women in the diaspora. Leila’s vignette charts the events in her life leading up to her forthcoming wedding to Ali, dwelling on the patriarchal institution of the arranged marriage, on coveted Muslim virginity, which still renders Arab American women the bearers of family honour, and on sexual violence against Arab women. The film opens with a clear

in Queer Muslim diasporas in contemporary literature and film
Sabine Lee

that conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) is neither limited to barbaric genocidal conflicts such as those described in previous chapters, nor is it limited to irregular armed groups of dubious military or paramilitary ethos in unregulated conflicts untouched by considerations of international law. In the reported case, soldiers from a country with military traditions that claim to instil ethical behaviour into their troops during training were faced with misconduct allegations; this indicates that even in operations which are tasked with protecting the local

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
A feminist debate in internet time
Shilpa Phadke

Sarkar had been quoted saying that she refused to provide more details about the complainants or the complaints ‘to protect the identities of those who feared professional retaliation and retribution like we often see in academia’ (quoted in Chatterjee, 2018 ). There were also discussions around the anonymity of the accusers, to which Chakravarty (2019) argues that discourses around sexual violence have been based on ‘the presence of a victim, a surviving body as the evidence of survival’ and that the list denied these voyeuristic

in Intimacy and injury
Corpse, bodypolitics and contestation in contemporary Guatemala
Ninna Nyberg Sørensen

historical context, including the legacy of the armed conflict. The fifth section discusses what Nelson (1999) has termed ‘the splattered body politics’ in processes of state formation in Guatemala. Gendering the corpse: homicide, femicide and feminicide Sexual violence against women is known in almost all corners of the world, but systematic violent killings of women seem to be concentrated in specific areas. The border town of Ciudad Juarez in northern Mexico is perhaps the best-known case, but other areas in the world also show high incidence of violent killings of

in Governing the dead
Transnational reflections from Brazilians in London and Maré, Rio de Janeiro
Cathy McIlwaine, Miriam Krenzinger, Yara Evans, and Eliana Sousa Silva

). Poor-quality housing where residence is insecure, overcrowded and/or in makeshift dwellings can make women vulnerable to burglary, theft and multiple forms of sexual violence (Chant, 2013 ), together with lack of street lighting and restricted access to safe and affordable transport (McIlwaine, 2016 ). In turn, in slum communities where sanitary facilities are located far from people’s homes it has emerged that women experience heightened levels of GBV, especially at night (Bapat and Agarwal, 2003 ). Urban public spaces can be sites of risk for women linked not

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
Configurations of con/destructive affective activism in women’s organising
Peace Kiguwa

-being; post office – public office responsible for postal services and communication that becomes the violent rape and death scene of a young woman; police station – right next door to the same post office; university – place of learning and teaching rife with told and untold stories of sexual harassment and sexual violence; township and suburb – geographical sites of living that continue to reflect the inequalities of a society; parliamentary building – office of the highest legislature in the country

in Intimacy and injury