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The discourse of spirits in Enlightenment Bristol
Jonathan Barry

those who believed in the reality of supernatural forces in this case, and sought to defend this view publicly. Even though the identities and motives of the sceptics are less clear, and no detailed work has been done on the social circumstances of the family at the centre of the case, enough can be deduced to draw tentative conclusions about what the episode may have meant to them as well. Sources: private and public debate In an earlier essay I used the diaries of William Dyer, covering the second half of the eighteenth century, to question some of the assumptions

in Beyond the witch trials
Abstract only
Rhodri Hayward

4 The self triumphant Open wide our self-made prisons (‘R Hwn Sy’n Gyrru Mellt Hedeg) ‘Wales’ read the headlines of the Liverpool Echo in January 1905, ‘[is] in the grip of supernatural forces’.1 The country was in a state of millennial fervour. Across the principality the familiar pattern of religious life was rent asunder as women and workers were being driven into public ecstasies and seized by religious raptures. Chapels and communities were transformed. The familiar procedures of the Sunday meeting were abandoned for the marathon sessions of praise and

in Resisting history
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Through everything
Nicholas Royle

. 48 ✂ Cixous cuts – through natural and supernatural. The word ‘supernatural’ might initially promote thoughts of mysticism or spiritualism, all the well-worn signs of the religious, eerie or spooky; but really it is just a matter of seeing how dreams infiltrate our perception. ‘We must pass through dreams in order to perceive the supernatural dimension of the natural.’ 49 What makes literature the ‘daughter of Dream’ is the familiarity they share with making strange. 50 Again, Shakespeare is in play: ‘As in Shakespeare, everything ordinary is

in Hélène Cixous
The mythology of emigration in Neil Gaiman’s American Gods
Heather O’Donoghue

In American Gods, Neil Gaiman characterises ‘America’ – to use Gaiman’s own anachronistic and in many ways problematic term – as a country of immigrants from its very earliest times to the present day. Gaiman’s starting point is what might be called the emigration of mythology – how gods and the heroes of folklore are exported to the New World along with each wave of emigration. 1 One of his inspirations was the work of academic folklorist Richard Dorson, who is quoted in the novel’s epigraph pondering the fates of these supernatural emigrants: ‘what happens

in From Iceland to the Americas
Brian Sudlow

voluntarist institution. It is significant, then, that the gathering into the Church envisaged by many French and English Catholic authors sometimes adopts supernatural or enchanted dimensions, especially through their depiction of prophecy, the miraculous and the mysterious sharing of grace between members of the Church. In this last chapter we must turn our attention to these themes as they appear in the works of French and English Catholic writers. It is here that we see not only their most outré defiance of secular mentalities, but also

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Sofia Wijkmark

Nyheter , is illustrative: ‘Låt fulskräcken komma in’ (‘Let the Ugly Horror in’). 1 Not only did Lindqvist's success change the way that critics and media spoke about the genre, arguably it also paved the way for other writers of Gothic fiction. Lindqvist's approach to the Gothic is distinguished by its combination of supernatural horror and social realism, and Swedish authors such as Madeleine Bäck, Anders Fager, Amanda Hellberg and Mats Strandberg have followed in Lindqvist's footsteps in combining horror and social

in Nordic Gothic
Open Access (free)
Romances, novels, and the classifications of Irish Romantic fiction
Christina Morin

the history of the novel as well as in the development of the literary gothic, as Clery observes ( Castle of Otranto , p. 9). What makes Otranto so important, Clery contends, is its combination of the realism of the novel and the fantasy of the romance: ‘The credible emotions of the characters connect us to incredible phenomena and events and allow terror to circulate via a process of identification and projection’. 13 David Punter similarly argues that it is Otranto 's merging of realism and romance in the form of the supernatural that establishes the novel as

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
Vampires, lesbians and masturbators
Diane Mason

fictional union between Laura, the only daughter of a retired diplomat, and Carmilla Karnstein, in J.S. Le Fanu’s ostensibly supernatural tale ‘Carmilla’ (1871–72), first published in the periodical The Dark Blue and later in Le Fanu’s collection, In a Glass Darkly . This Victorian vampire novella, unlike Dracula , has seldom been subject to analysis by way of medical discourse, though Robert Tracy has asserted that ‘Le Fanu usually hints at the possibility of … mental or even physical illness in his victims’. 4 In Bram Stoker’s Dracula , vampirism is mistakenly

in The secret vice
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Sarah Annes Brown

whole in the present trace or fragment, on the ability to hold two things in one’s mind simultaneously and appreciate the gap or charge between them, the transforming effect of a new context. Doubleness, ambiguity, is also a hallmark of the uncanny. An unambiguously supernatural force is far less uncanny than one which just might have a natural explanation. Webster’s echo is an excellent illustration of

in A familiar compound ghost
Sabine Doering-Manteuffel and Stephan Bachter

10 Beyond the witch trials The dissemination of magical knowledge The dissemination of magical knowledge in Enlightenment Germany The supernatural and the development of print culture Sabine Doering-Manteuffel The so-called Age of Enlightenment has traditionally been portrayed as a phase of European history during which new philosophies came into existence concerning people’s ability to determine their own fate through reason. This era saw the development of future-oriented conceptions of state and society as well as new ideas about mankind’s ability to

in Beyond the witch trials