always possible to pretend that it had. By the
late 1960s, however, even that false dream had dissipated in the El
Dorado of consumption and wealth being birthed in Italy itself; Libyan
oil in part fuelled the ‘proletarian’ nation’s great
leap forward, but it was the Beatles, thepill, abortion, education,
Fiats and Vespas which fired up this new and post-colonial Italy. The
little plots of land in
symbolises the situation at hand in an extreme, over-the-top way – too explicit for costume's regular meaning-making process. Its meanings are ambiguous: both affectionate and cold, Villanelle's dress says that she cares so much about Eve that she already mourns her, but also threatens that she is about to kill her. Eve, then, is vulnerable in appearance, using only her knowledge of Villanelle to predict her actions – and, indeed, thepills she makes Eve take are harmless. Villanelle's costume is lying because her front-facing performance is meant to scare Eve into
between them, Moshinsky allows Alving / Dench to hug her son,
and rifle through his jacket (he is wearing it) in search of thepills.
During the first part of the exchange quoted above, Alving / Dench holds
Osvald / Branagh’s head in her hands. This gradually slips to her
chest as he says his last lines, his eyes closed, and then from view
entirely, as the camera focuses on Alving / Dench, her face obscured now
infallible contraceptive has yet to be invented. 7 Contraceptives, such as thepill and the IUD (intrauterine device), carry a price tag. They pose some risk to women’s health. Contraception is a medical as well as a social issue. And it largely concerns women, since except for the still experimental male ‘pill’, men must choose between the condom and vasectomy. The more sophisticated contraceptives which pose medical risk are used by women. A doctor advising a woman on contraception owes her the same duties as in any other area of medicine. He must offer her competent
when smuggling into the UK, 60 per cent (430 kilograms) was of Dutch origin. The same methods were used as for transport to Scandinavia: the amphetamines were hidden in trucks and transported in ferries, in this case through Dover.
In 1989 the amphetamine profiling project of the Swedish police concluded on the basis of a study of amphetamine pills seized in Europe between 1985 and 1989 that almost 80 per cent of all thepills had been produced in the Netherlands. Half of
horse-pack. Its fifteen small drawers would be ample for thepills and medication he would have needed. Hall would have travelled with a few of his medical textbooks as well to help him with diagnoses and cures.
℞: senna leaves 1oz, agaric 3dr, rhubarb 2dr, cinnamon 1½oz. Infuse according to practice in 3 pints white wine for twelve hours. Then strain six or seven times through a woollen bag and sweeten with ½lb [p. 2] of good sugar in the form of nectar . 6 Dose: 5oz twice a day, on an empty stomach in the morning and about four o’clock in the
enquired whether any external lacerations were found on the body that may have linked the convulsions to a case of traumatic tetanus. Hearing that no such marks had been found, Taylor announced that he was prepared to give a definite opinion as to the cause of death. Stating that Mills had accurately described the symptoms produced by small doses of strychnine, Taylor declared: ‘My belief is that he died from tetanus, and that tetanus was caused by medicine given to him shortly before his death’. 9 Thepills, Taylor continued, must have contained strychnine, the only
formation of local authority social
Jackson 05a.indd 137
service departments in 1970, which brought social work provision (as
well as coordination) within the local state and saw the final closure
of most old-style mother and baby homes. The introduction of legal
abortion in 1967 also had a significant effect, although this too was regionally inflected. In Manchester it was argued that this was easier to
obtain than thepill (notionally available to single women from 1967)
because local hospitals had a ‘more liberal’ reputation than
I. Löwy, ‘“Sexual chemistry” before thepill: science, industry and chemical contraceptives, 1920–1960’, British Journal for the History of Science , 44:2 (2011), pp. 245–74; Soloway, ‘The “perfect contraceptive”’; Marks, Sexual Chemistry .
Wellcome Library, London, FPA/A/13/5/9, ‘Memorandum on work on the Birth Control Investigation Committee, 1927
, ‘“Sexual chemistry” before thepill’; Soloway, ‘The “perfect contraceptive”’.
On these elements see S. Sturdy, ‘Looking for trouble: medical science and clinical practice in the historiography of modern medicine’, Social History of Medicine , 24:3 (2011), pp. 739–57.