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Elisabeth van Houts

’s head around for all to see. Serlo’s act is a prime example of the aggressive Norman triumphalism which soldiers displayed in times of war, though William the Conqueror’s apologists were careful not to draw attention to it in their chronicles. Most castles were built on strategic sites on hilltops and near rivers along the borders, for example (from north to south) at Eu and

in The Normans in Europe
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Jennifer Ward

’s estates brought in revenues of about £12,000. This gulf between the top nobility and the rest was largely the result of marriage and the accumulation of great inheritances in a few hands. 4 Between 1066 and 1500 the knight had an important role both in war and society. In the Norman period, the knights were not a homogeneous group, and a few of them held as much land as a lesser

in Women of the English Nobility and Gentry, 1066-1500
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Chris Given-Wilson

1370s saw the war with France, in which Edward III had enjoyed such conspicuous success for much of his reign, turn decisively against the English, and failure abroad brought in its wake a renewal of political discord and government insolvency at home. These problems were to haunt Richard during his minority. Disagreements over foreign policy, chronic financial instability, and the intensification of parliamentary

in Chronicles of the Revolution, 1397–1400
Simon Barton
Richard Fletcher

Sancho valued Rodrigo Díaz so highly, with great esteem and affection, that he made him commander of his whole military following. 9 So Rodrigo throve and became a most mighty man of war, and Campeador in the household of King Sancho. In every battle which King Sancho fought with King Alfonso, at Llantada and Golpejera, and defeated him, Rodrigo bore the king’s royal standard, and distinguished himself

in The world of El Cid
Martin Heale

houses, to the very great impoverishment of your same kingdom in this matter, which God forbid. May it please your most noble and most gracious lordship to consider that at the beginning of the war which arose between the said kingdoms, they were, from all the possessions which your lieges then held by gift of your noble progenitors in parts overseas within the jurisdiction of

in Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535
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Andrew Brown
Graeme Small

difficulty. 27 The most enduring (although not the only) rising of the 1430s occurred at Bruges. 28 In the following decade tension between the ducal regime and Ghent developed from 1447, and led to a bloody war which was not settled in the duke’s favour until 1453 [ 13, 14 ]. 29 Charles the Bold’s accession witnessed revolts in a number of towns, including Mechelen and Ghent [ 15

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530
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I. S. Robinson

, which wished these to exist not as one but as two [powers]’. 77 The polemical writings of the Lotharingian monk Sigebert of Gembloux contain a careful analysis of Gregorian innovations. ‘All [the popes] from Gregory I onwards were content to use only the spiritual sword, until the last Gregory, that is Hildebrand, who first girded himself – and by his example, other popes – with the sword of war

in The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century
Graham A. Loud

The River Sulla. 7 Brucato was destroyed in the fourteenth-century wars and the site abandoned, Backman (1995) , 32. 8 ‘Iron rock’; modern Campofelice di Roccella lies a little inland. 9

in Roger II and the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily
Anthony Musson
Edward Powell

, especially cases involving the usurpation of franchises, began to overwhelm the agency and the duration of its sessions lengthened accordingly. 6 Following its suspension in 1294 (owing to war with France) it was not recalled to the national stage until a brief experiment under chief justice Geoffrey le Scrope in 1329–31. 7 The revival of the eyre at that time was itself highly symbolic and an

in Crime, Law and Society in the Later Middle Ages
Alison K. McHardy

Appeals were also used in the civil law, especially in enforcing the laws of war [68] , which covered not only safe-conducts, ransoms and armorial bearings, but treason too. 19 Those cases were heard in the Court of Chivalry, presided over by the Constable of England. In 1388 the Constable was Thomas, duke of Gloucester. But Gloucester and his allies had made their appeal before

in The reign of Richard II