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Mark Doidge
Radosław Kossakowski
, and
Svenja Mintert

provides a regular space where groups can meet and interact, and this helps sustain the group over time, providing continuity and tradition. Yet these practices have not existed forever; football as we know it only became codified in the nineteenth century and established as a popular sport across the world since the turn of the twentieth century. The ultras style of fandom can trace its roots back to the late 1960s in Italy, making its traditions considerably younger than the sport itself. It is for this reason that Hobsbawm’s use of ‘invented tradition’ is apposite in

in Ultras
Abstract only
David MacDougall

is to question the odd tendency of the genre to withdraw from examining life as we experience it – to remain so often in the safer zone of the authoritative report, the inspiring message, the conventionally beautiful image. If the new directions taken by documentary films in the 1960s had a principal aim it was to reduce the gap between the viewing perspectives of the filmmaker and the film viewer – between the world shown on the screen and what was actually happening around the filmmaker at the time. This was basically a question of how much the viewer would be

in The looking machine
David MacDougall

the hands of the individual observer. Although observational cinema emerged as a recognisable style of filmmaking in the 1960s and 1970s, it owed much to earlier developments in both cinema and social science. Young’s ideal of a cinema that allowed others to see what the filmmaker had seen was clearly the motivation behind some of the earliest films ever made, such as those of the Lumière brothers in the 1890s and cinematograph records made by social scientists such as Alfred Cort Haddon and Walter Baldwin Spencer. Even earlier, anthropologists had attached great

in The looking machine
David MacDougall

footage. Many of us who began making films in the 1960s were intent on producing films of a new kind, but we were just as determined not to make films of the old kind. We rejected the authoritarianism of didactic films, which told the audience exactly what to think about a subject. Accordingly, part of structuring these films meant either avoiding voice-over commentary altogether or at least substituting for it a specific, identifiable voice. The motive force was now to be based on the images and

in The art of the observer
Walter Bruyère-Ostells

Mercenaries are fighters who operate under special conditions. Their presence, as shadow combatants, often tends to exacerbate the violence of their enemies. That’s why the analysis focuses on the singularity of the relationship to death and ‘procedures’ concerning the corpses of their fallen comrades. As a fighter identified and engaged in landlocked areas, the mercenary’s corpse is treated according to material constraints pertaining in the 1960s. After violence on their body, and evolution towards the secret war, mercenaries favour the repatriation of the body or its disappearance. These new, painful conditions for comrades and families give birth to a collective memory fostered by commemorations.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
The Quinta Normal Park – Colectivo MapsUrbe

migrant from the rural and indigenous south, especially in the 1950s and 1960s entailed precarious and very arduous employment. When arriving in the Chilean capital, men were mostly employed on construction sites, in bakeries, in meat factories and public maintenance, while women worked as live-in housemaids from a very young age. 7 The fatigue of the long working hours, the discrimination, and the abuses suffered were not always discussed within the family, and frequently indigenous migrants concealed

in Performing the jumbled city
Mapuche migration and joy
Martín Llancaman

work documents the use of the park (and other sites) by the Mapuche population at the beginning of the 1960s and, at the same time, reveals how anthropology tried to interpret the generation of our grandparents. We were able to observe that, mainly, the Mapuche walked in mixed groups of 3 people or, at most, 5. We also observed groups of men only, and some isolated individuals (preferably men) […] In addition to the above observations, we also saw couples (men and women

in Performing the jumbled city
José López Mazz

paved the way for it from the mid-1960s. During that period there was an increase in conflicts over land ownership (sugar-cane workers) and over low salaries and civil rights (labour laws). The first instances of disappeared and murdered political detainees occurred in the early 1970s. Shortly afterwards the armed conflict with Tupamaro guerrillas and the coup itself accentuated the level of violence, which was part of a well-defined political strategy and the overall system of social control.2 84   José López Mazz This study focuses on the complicated problems

in Human remains and identification
From colonial to cross-cultural psychiatry in Nigeria
Matthew M. Heaton

(mental) health with the practice of global history. Nationalism, anti-colonialism and Nigerian psychiatry In the Nigerian context the transformation of colonial psychiatry into a cross-cultural and global psychiatry was spearheaded mostly by indigenous Nigerian psychiatrists, trained in British or British-modelled universities and hospitals in the 1950s and 1960s, who took over mental health institutions as part of Nigerian decolonization and practised in the first few decades after independence in 1960. Initially, these

in Global health and the new world order
Abstract only
Essays on cinema, anthropology and documentary filmmaking

The looking machine calls for the redemption of documentary cinema, exploring the potential and promise of the genre at a time when it appears under increasing threat from reality television, historical re-enactments, designer packaging and corporate authorship. The book consists of a set of essays, each focused on a particular theme derived from the author’s own experience as a filmmaker. It provides a practice-based, critical perspective on the history of documentary, how films evoke space, time and physical sensations, questions of aesthetics, and the intellectual and emotional relationships between filmmakers and their subjects. It is especially concerned with the potential of film to broaden the base of human knowledge, distinct from its expression in written texts. Among its underlying concerns are the political and ethical implications of how films are actually made, and the constraints that may prevent filmmakers from honestly showing what they have seen. While defending the importance of the documentary idea, MacDougall urges us to consider how the form can become a ‘cinema of consciousness’ that more accurately represents the sensory and everyday aspects of human life. Building on his experience bridging anthropology and cinema, he argues that this means resisting the inherent ethnocentrism of both our own society and the societies we film.