6 The 1960s Introduction The last chapter focused on Bourdieu’s publications in the early 1960s which consolidated the research that he had undertaken in Algeria in the last few years of the previous decade. This established the pattern of activity which was to persist until 1980. Fieldwork or empirical research progressed in tandem with more generalized social and philosophical reflection. Bourdieu had not yet articulated a working philosophy of science, but he proceeded on the tacit assumption that he was offering intelligent responses to the phenomena which
On the global stage the British diaspora, proportionate to its population, remains one of the largest. This book is the first social history to explore experiences of British emigrants from the peak years of the 1960s to the emigration resurgence of the turn of the twentieth century. It explores migrant experiences in Australia, Canada and New Zealand alongside other countries. The book charts the gradual reinvention of the 'British diaspora' from a postwar migration of austerity to a modern migration of prosperity. It is divided into two parts. First part presents a decade-by-decade chronology of changes in migration patterns and experience, progressing gradually from the postwar migration of austerity to a more discretionary mobility of affluence. It discusses 'pioneers of modern mobility'; the 1970s rise in non-white migration and the decline of British privilege in the old Commonwealth countries of white settlement; 'Thatcher's refugees' and cosmopolitanism and 'lifestyle' migration. Second part shifts from a chronological to a thematic focus, by drilling down into some of the more prominent themes encountered. It explores the interplay of patterns of change and continuity in the migrant careers of skilled workers, trade unionists, professionals and mobile academics. The push and pull of private life, migration to transform a way of life, and migrant and return experiences discussed highlight the underlying theme of continuity amidst change. The long process of change from the 1960s to patterns of discretionary, treechange and nomadic migration became more common practice from the end of the twentieth century.
Mercenaries are fighters who operate under special conditions. Their presence, as shadow combatants, often tends to exacerbate the violence of their enemies. That’s why the analysis focuses on the singularity of the relationship to death and ‘procedures’ concerning the corpses of their fallen comrades. As a fighter identified and engaged in landlocked areas, the mercenary’s corpse is treated according to material constraints pertaining in the 1960s. After violence on their body, and evolution towards the secret war, mercenaries favour the repatriation of the body or its disappearance. These new, painful conditions for comrades and families give birth to a collective memory fostered by commemorations.
2 Michael Harloe A child of its times: the ‘new urban sociology’ in context and its legacy In 1955 Ruth Glass, chair of the International Sociological Association’s (ISA) Research Committee on Urban Sociology, published a Trend Report on current developments (Glass 1955). She wrote, ‘the faces of cities have been lined by competitive economic interests, by social and ideological cleavages’. Dismissively, she then added, ‘[b]ut this can be taken for granted’ (Glass 1955: 49). And so it remained, with few exceptions, until the late 1960s. Then a remarkable
-relations reforms.3 From 112 Assembling cultures the early 1960s, car workers were also confronted by a growing conviction amongst companies and governments that the industry required substantial reform and rationalisation to be globally competitive. To this end, the first Wilson government encouraged industrial consolidation, promoting the British Motor Corporation (BMC) takeovers of Pressed Steel in 1965 and Jaguar in 1966, the Leyland-Triumph absorption of Rover in 1967 and finally, in 1968, the merger of all these firms to form British Leyland.4 As a corrective to the
173 6 Social research and state planning Introduction The First Programme for Economic Expansion was launched in 1958. By the early 1960s the scope of programming was widening as the stagnation prevailing for most of the 1950s gave way to a period of continuous economic growth. Initial crisis conditions had enabled increased social spending to be left off the programmers’ agenda. The changed politics of increasing prosperity, as well as their own expanding ambitions, meant that this could no longer be sustained. This chapter begins by sketching Ireland’s social
media that stretched back to the late 1950s and 1960s. Writers such as Richard Hoggart and Raymond Williams opened up the study of ‘culture’ as lived experience, while E. P. Thompson’s seminal The Making of the English Working Class ‘rescued’ a rich working-class culture in the early nineteenth century.1 The idea of the ‘cultural revolution’, or even a ‘long revolution’, appealed to those who felt that society needed to be reborn through the creativity of the working class, a term which, even then, meant many different things to different people, encompassing the
. The harder one looked at particular cases the more disparate these ‘tigers’ appeared to become and the greater the differences how and why particular countries achieved their economic success seemed to be. Yet, the original four East Asian ‘tigers’ shared some core economic characteristics. Each had maintained average annual economic growth rates of more than 8 per cent from the 1960s until the 1990s.2 Between 1960 and 1990 Taiwan’s GDP rose by an average of 9.3 per cent per annum. Such growth rates were very high compared to European averages of 2 per cent across
, and the experiences of, certain segments of Britain’s rural populations, for example women, youth and the homeless. 10 Regarding the academic sphere, whilst much work has been done since Chris Philo’s 1992 claim that Britain was characterised by what he coined ‘neglected rural geographies’, 11 rural space nevertheless remains overlooked in comparison to urban settings across a range of disciplines and areas of research. This chapter places the integration of Muslim migrant communities in post-1960s Wiltshire within this context of rural Britain. It builds upon
idyll. These include Bangladeshis, Indians, Moroccans, Pakistanis and Turks who have settled across the county throughout the post-1960s period, and whose everyday lives and ethnic and religious identities have played out against the county’s rural landscape. This book does not claim to have addressed all aspects of the Muslim migrant experience or local government approach in Wiltshire, nor to have assessed all of the various actors and dimensions relevant to the integration process. Previous chapters have already touched upon some of this study’s key arguments and