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Immigrant England
Mark Ormrod
Bart Lambert
, and
Jonathan Mackman

the alien subsidy material for the first year of the collection of the tax, 1440. 20 She, and later Gervase Rosser and Martha Carlin, made studies of the alien subsidy material as it related to the city of London and its suburbs; and in 1998 J. L. Bolton published a definitive edition of the most complete of the London returns for the tax, those of 1440 and 1483–4. 21 A number of case studies for other regions and towns, including Norfolk, York and Bristol, were also published from the 1960s onwards. 22 However, serious work on both denizations and the alien

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Thomas A. Prendergast
Stephanie Trigg

recoverable – begins to possess attributes that look very much like an earlier formulation that was used to good effect by Paul Goodman at Berkeley in the 1960s to defend the free speech movement and argued ‘for a renewal of the medieval conception of the university as a “community of scholars” capable of governing itself and resisting outside forces’. 33 The idea of a medieval conception of a community of

in Affective medievalism
Eva von Contzen

Legendary can be usefully approached from the perspective of narrative theory, the central concern of which is the analysis of narrative as motivated structures. Although narratology has been firmly established as an influential field within literary studies at least since the 1960s, medieval studies have generally been reluctant, to say the least, to engage with the theories and methods developed by narratologists. There are good reasons why: in its early days, so-called classical narratology was an exclusively structuralist endeavour that focused on one genre in

in The Scottish Legendary
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Colin Veach

dissolution of the old Carolingian order and the gradual reformation of public authority in the form of the thirteenth-­century French nation-­state, served as the dominant meta-­narrative of French medieval history from the 1960s until the late 1990s. However, more recent scholarship has undercut the theory of millennial transformation by stressing continuity rather than change. The theory’s main assailant, Dominique Barthélemy, suggests that the transformation apparent in the sources was actually down to a change in the sources themselves – a mutation documentaire.17 He

in Lordship in four realms
Environment and economy
Victoria L. McAlister

investigations and subsequent restrictions in the mid-nineteenth century, when conducting fieldwork at these sites today it is easy to imagine how a fish weir could have been ideally suited to the environment. These suppositions are supported by discussions with landowners, which often indicated both illicit and legal fishing practices close to these sites within living memory. References in the literature to fish weirs at tower houses are legion, in part thanks to the series of articles written by Arthur Went in the 1950s and 1960s, detailing the history of the fisheries of

in The Irish tower house
Socio-cultural considerations of intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

wrote of his encounter with Peppi, a man acting as factotum in a Viennese apartment block in the late 1960s, that he was ‘a relic of a bygone age’, who still shared many of the characteristics of the traditional household fool. On Peppi’s death he commented: ‘He is missed as one misses a dog which has died after having loyally shared one’s life for many years.’ 19 Zijderveld further noted that artificial fools may, in historically correct if politically incorrect fashion, be compared to ‘expensive pets’, ‘mentioned in one breath with dogs, falcons and monkeys … court

in Fools and idiots?
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Irene O'Daly

‘Cambridge School’ method, and has dominated the field since the 1960s. It marks a departure from the idealist approach that looked at political ideas abstracted from their context – thus neutralised of their historical content – and the normative approach that sought to find in the history of political thought lessons which could usefully be applied to a contemporary present. Adopting the ‘Cambridge School’ method requires, instead, that three categories of information are to be investigated when searching for the political content of a text. First, we need to isolate the

in John of Salisbury and the medieval Roman renaissance
Natural science and intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

Starcraft of Early England , Rolls Series 35 (London, 1864–66), part 2, 137–9. See Stefan Jurasinski, ‘Madness and Responsibility in Anglo-Saxon England’, in Tom Lambert and David Rollason (eds), Peace and Protection in the Medieval West (Toronto: PIMS, 2009), 99–120. 138 Cockayne, Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft , part 2, 143, Leechbook I, chapter lxvi. 139 J. R. Clark Hall, A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 4th edn, 1960), s.v. ungemynde, dysgung

in Fools and idiots?
Elisabeth Salter

course of this examination he set into context the rise of the quantification method Salter, Popular reading in English.indd 21 21/05/2012 10:15:02 22 Popular reading in English c. 1400–1600 during the 1960s, seeing this as a reaction to earlier tendencies towards biographical approaches with their ‘historizing history’. The use of case studies, Vovelle suggested, marked a resurgence of interest in historical reconstruction of more individualised subjects such as biographical analyses. Amongst the biographical he included the microhistory approach championed by

in Popular reading in English c. 1400–1600
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Anatomy of a metaphor
John M. Ganim

The argument of this chapter is that certain films with medieval themes and settings, mostly dating from the 1940s to the 1960s, demonstrate a surprising affinity with the themes and techniques associated with film noir . The apocalyptic landscapes of these films are often bleak mirrors of the empty streets of film noir and sometimes allude to the sense of impending doom that haunted the

in Medieval film