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Philip Hammond

This chapter focuses on Operation Enduring Freedom: the US-led military action in Afghanistan, undertaken in response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. In justifying its military response, the US cited both the authority of the UN Security Council, which passed a resolution on 12 September 2001 describing the terrorist attacks as a ‘threat to international

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
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Power, form and subjectivity
Author: John Corner

This book explores how issues of power, form and subjectivity feature at the core of all serious thinking about the media, including appreciations of their creativity as well as anxiety about the risks they pose. Drawing widely on an interdisciplinary literature, the author connects his exposition to examples from film, television, radio, photography, painting, web practice, music and writing in order to bring in topics as diverse as reporting the war in Afghanistan, the televising of football, documentary portrayals of 9/11, reality television, the diversity of taste in the arts and the construction of civic identity. The book is divided into two parts. In the first part, three big chapters on each of the key notions provide an interconnected discussion of the media activities opened up for exploration and the debates they have provoked. The second part presents examples, arguments and analysis drawing on the author's previous work around the core themes, with notes placing them in the context of the whole book. The book brings together concepts both from Social Studies and the Arts and Humanities, addressing a readership wider than the sub-specialisms of media research. It refreshes ideas about why the media matter, and how understanding them better remains a key aim of cultural inquiry and a continuing requirement for public policy.

The War on Terror and the resurgence of hillbilly horror after 9/11
Linnie Blake

’s Easy Rider are blown from their motorcycles by two archetypes of redneck intolerance, the sense remains that such acts of lawless ‘killin’ and maimin’’ are a direct result of the encroachment of America’s economic, political and legal systems on the autonomy of poor white country-dwellers. In Easy Rider, the hippies’ refusal to be ‘bought and sold in the marketplace’ thus functions as a reminder that the rhetoric of freedom espoused by conservative Americans in justification of the war in Vietnam (and later Afghanistan and Iraq) is a means of social control, a

in The wounds of nations
The media and international intervention
Author: Philip Hammond

The first major post-Cold War conflict, the 1991 Gulf war, indicated how much had already changed. Saddam Hussein had enjoyed Western support in Iraq's war against Iran in the 1980s, but was abruptly cast as the 'new Hitler' after his invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. This book is about how the media have interpreted conflict and international intervention in the years after the Cold War. By comparing press coverage of a number of different wars and crises, it seeks to establish which have been the dominant themes in explaining the post-Cold War international order and to discover how far the patterns established prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks have subsequently changed. The key concern is with the legitimacy of Western intervention: the aim is to investigate the extent to which Western military action is represented in news reporting as justifiable and necessary. The book presents a study that looks at UK press coverage of six conflicts and the international response to them: two instances of 'humanitarian military intervention' (Somalia and Kosovo); two cases in which the international community was criticised for not intervening (Bosnia and Rwanda); and two post-9/11 interventions (Afghanistan and Iraq). There were a number of overlapping UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. Operation Restore Hope was the first major instance of post-Cold War humanitarian military intervention, following the precedent set by the establishment of 'safe havens' for Iraqi Kurds and other minorities at the end of the 1991 Gulf war.

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Author: Steve Blandford

This is the first book-length study of one of the most significant of all British television writers, Jimmy McGovern. The book provides comprehensive coverage of all his work for television including early writing on Brookside, major documentary dramas such as Hillsborough and Sunday and more recent series such as The Street and Accused.

Whilst the book is firmly focused on McGovern’s own work, the range of his output over the period in which he has been working also provides something of an overview of the radical changes in television drama commissioning that have taken place during this time. Without compromising his deeply-held convictions McGovern has managed to adapt to an ever changing environment, often using his position as a sought-after writer to defy industry trends.

The book also challenges the notion of McGovern as an uncomplicated social realist in stylistic terms. Looking particularly at his later work, a case is made for McGovern employing a greater range of narrative approaches, albeit subtly and within boundaries that allow him to continue to write for large popular audiences.

Finally it is worth pointing to the book’s examination of McGovern’s role in recent years as a mentor to new voices, frequently acting as a creative producer on series that he part-writes and part brings through different less-experienced names.

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Global power and media absences
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

interviewee from Afghanistan provided a clear-cut assessment on the Eurocentric logic inspiring the changing priorities of news media in Italy, in relation to regions and conflicts outside of Europe: I read news about Afghanistan every day. It’s my birth country. Previously the media talked a lot about Afghanistan, maybe because after 2001 it was one of the few countries where there was a war and Italian soldiers were involved. Year after year, the focus of the mainstream media changed – moving from Iraq to Syria, and more recently to Libya – as now your interests are there

in How media and conflicts make migrants
Author: Karen Fricker

This book explores the development of Robert Lepage’s distinctive approach to stage direction in the early (1984–94) and middle (1995–2008) stages of his career, arguing that globalisation had a defining effect in shaping his aesthetic and professional trajectory. It combines examination of Lepage’s theatremaking techniques with discussion of his work’s effects on audiences, calling on Lepage’s own statements as well as existing scholarship and critical response. In addition to globalisation theory, the book draws on cinema studies, queer theory, and theories of affect and reception. As such, it offers an unprecedented conceptual framework, drawing together what has previously been a scattered field of research. Each of six chapters treats a particular aspect of globalisation, using this as a means to explore one or more of Lepage’s productions. These aspects include the relationship of the local (in Lepage’s case, his background in Québec) to the global; the place of individual experience within global late modernity; the effects of screen media on human perception; the particular affect of ‘feeling global’; the place of branding in contemporary creative systems; and the relationship of creative industries to neoliberal economies. Making theatre global: Robert Lepage’s original stage productions will be of interest to scholars of contemporary theatre, advanced-level undergraduates with an interest in the application of theoretical approaches to theatrical creation and reception, and arts lovers keen for new perspectives on one of the most talked-about theatre artists of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

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Framing post-Cold War conflicts
Philip Hammond

this study. Firstly, the extent of ‘ethnic’ framing has been exaggerated in cases where it is held to have discouraged greater intervention, particularly Bosnia. Secondly, the presence of similar ideas about ‘ethnic’ or ‘tribal’ divisions in other cases – Somalia, Afghanistan and Kosovo – in no way challenged the consensus in favour of intervention. Indeed, it seems to have had the

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
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Brian McFarlane and Deane Williams

immigrants died from asphyxiation while being smuggled to London in a lorry. And the 9/11 attacks directed the focus for these issues to the Middle East, in particular to Afghanistan. Winterbottom and Grisoni travelled to Pakistan in November 2001 to scout for locations and for situations that could inform what turned out to be a largely improvised narrative. They visited the Shamshatoo refugee camp in Pakistan where the film opens

in Michael Winterbottom
John Corner

the World Press Photo of the Year Award winner for the following year, taken in 2007 and awarded in 2008 (as with the Beirut photo, there are many website carrying this image as ‘World Press Photo of Year Award 2007’, with worldpressphoto.org itself an obvious choice). Once again, the critical social optics of ‘seeing conflict’ are involved. This image, taken by the British photographer Tim Hetherington, working for Vanity Fair, shows a young US soldier leaning back against the earth wall of a darkened military bunker in Afghanistan. His upturned helmet is cradled

in Theorising Media