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Author: Alannah Tomkins

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

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‘Shared experiences and meanings’
Carol Acton and Jane Potter

experiences of one war overlap and merge with those from another, so that they can be said to be in dialogue. This dialogue allows what Stanton et al. call ‘shared experiences and meanings’1 across time and culture. When we set the medical personnel accounts discussed throughout this book side by side, in the same way that Stanton et  al. bring together nursing experiences from the Vietnam War with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, we can move beyond the traditional historical treatment of each war experience as separate. In Angel Walk, similarly, collecting experiences of

in Working in a world of hurt
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David J. Appleby and Andrew Hopper

established for the first time the important principle that the State should care for those maimed and bereaved in its service. In practice, such care was often less than generous and far from ubiquitous. This was still the case after 1660 when the Restoration regime attempted to honour the Crown’s debt to royalist maimed soldiers and widows. In the wake of twentieth-century wars, and more recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, this principle continues to be enshrined in the UK – not always perfectly – in the Armed Forces Covenant. It may be, as the contributors to

in Battle-scarred
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Carol Acton and Jane Potter

between grief and guilt that attends the deaths of innocent victims, where the medical personnel are powerless to save them or effect change. In this chapter, however, we look more generally at the relationship between medical personnel and the deaths of those they care for and the post-war effects of this intimacy with death, keeping in mind Shatan’s connection between grief and post-traumatic stress. Recently this issue has come to the fore in a Guardian article on American Iraq and Afghanistan War veteran suicides, where researchers have concluded that ‘the most

in Working in a world of hurt
Vaccine scares, statesmanship and the media
Andrea Stöckl and Anna Smajdor

of Afghanistan in 2001 and the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Blair's political style has been linked to a new type of personalised political leadership which emerged at the end of the twentieth century in western democracies. This style of politics has seen an increase in the importance of the political leader over the collective of the party. The democratic decision-making process has been reduced to one individual who influences public opinion

in The politics of vaccination
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The practice of nursing and the exigencies of war
Jane Brooks and Christine E. Hallett

battlefield. Her writing, which carried strangely contradictory qualities, both incisive and surreal, suggested that military nursing might, in fact, be, quite literally, a ‘dead end’ occupation.18 Nursing work and nursing knowledge A recent study of twenty-first century American military nurses focuses on the highly technical nature of modern military nursing in Iraq and Afghanistan. Exploring the work of 37 US military nurses, Elizabeth Scannell-Desch and Mary Ellen Doherty choose to emphasise nursing work in mobile surgical field hospitals, fast-forward teams and medevac

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
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Doctors and medics in the Vietnam War
Carol Acton and Jane Potter

. Sasser, Doc: Platoon Medic (Lincoln, Nebr.: Writers Club Press, 2002), p. xviii. 62 Sherman, Medic, p. 150; our ellipses in square brackets. 63 Evans, Doc, p. 107. 64 Glasser, 365 Days, p.  53. In his 2011 work, Broken Bodies, Shattered Minds:  A  Medical Odyssey from Vietnam to Afghanistan (Palisades, NY: History Publishing Company, 2011), Glasser reiterates this ‘grace’, especially found in the bravery of the medics, and connects the war in Vietnam to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan: Vietnam was ‘filled with confusing stories, outright lies, terrible decisions, bizarre

in Working in a world of hurt
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Krista Maglen

Times, 3 June 2011, p, 1,10. 9 These are: Afghanistan, Angola, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verdi, Central African Rep, Chad, China (Including: Hong Kong SAR, and Macau), Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, South Korea, Rep of Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines

in The English System
Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny
Sam Goodman

. A. Chick’s Annals of the Indian Rebellion (1859) lists eleven medical men apparently worthy of note in Lucknow, ranging from the rank of surgeon through to apothecary.11 Most notable among them were Surgeon William Brydon, the sole survivor of the ill-fated Afghan expedition of 1838–42, Henry Martineau Greenhow, who compiled a statistical list of those military personnel killed at Lucknow and was recommend for the Victoria Cross for actions during the siege, and Assistant Surgeon Joseph Fayrer, who would go on to be a respected authority on the transmission and treatment

in Colonial caring