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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li, and Samuel S. Sutherland

, 2018 ), 164 – 165 . 64 This refers to the Patriarch of Grado, Vitalis IV Candiano (r. 976–1017). 65 This refers to an intense blue paint whose pigment was produced by from costly lapis lazuli, which was mined only in Afghanistan in the Middle Ages. The use of the term “Greek” here likely reflects the transit of the stone from Afghanistan along the medieval silk routes through the Byzantine Empire, and especially to the grinding of the pigment there on its way into Western Europe. Recent research has confirmed the availability of lapis lazuli pigment in German

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany