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Overview of conflict and assistance from 2001 to 2014
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

between organizational structure and individual agency, humanitarian ethics and the link between security and development. In Chapter 4 , attention shifted to the case study, examining the history of Afghanistan by deploying the three drivers of the military–humanitarian relationship first discussed in Chapter 2 . The purpose of this chapter is to describe the situation in

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
Abstract only
Philip Hammond

This chapter focuses on Operation Enduring Freedom: the US-led military action in Afghanistan, undertaken in response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. In justifying its military response, the US cited both the authority of the UN Security Council, which passed a resolution on 12 September 2001 describing the terrorist attacks as a ‘threat to international

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

principles were important to most organizations working in Afghanistan but they were heavily influenced by the politically charged environment. Finally, humanitarians understood that they are part of the stability and state-building process in Afghanistan and, for that reason, those issues relating to co-option and politicization are less significant than is commonly assumed

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
Authors: Eric James and Tim Jacoby

Over recent years, the relationship between humanitarians and the military has become especially controversial. Concerns over inefficient and duplicated assistance programs and the compromised security of relief workers have been regularly highlighted. Many point to ongoing tensions and polarized positions that seem to leave NGOs a stark choice between “neutrality” and co-option. Using Afghanistan as a case study, this book analyses this apparent duality. It puts forward five basic arguments. First, the history of the relationship extends prior to the birth of modern humanitarianism. Second, inter-organizational friction is common between groups and it does not always have a detrimental impact. Third, working with the military does not necessarily create more dangerous situations for NGOs. Fourth, humanitarian principles are not a fixed set of propositions, but evolve according to temporal and situational context. Finally, humanitarians are generally not co-opted, but rather willingly take part in political-military endeavors. In all, it is suggested that NGOs tend to change their policies and actions depending on the context. The book thus transcends the simple “for” or “against” arguments, leading to a more refined understanding of the relationship between NGOs and the military.

Anoshay Fazal

. In this chapter, I explore the linkages between statelessness, citizenship laws, and migration in the Indian sub-continent. The citizenship regime that emerged in 1947 in Pakistan is studied in order to contextualise and further analyse the status conferred upon a sizeable population of persons of Afghan origin residing in Pakistan over the last forty years

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
A mixed set of perceptions
James W. Peterson

Introduction Following the initial shock and surprise of confronting the qualitatively new challenges from the Chechens and al Qaeda, both America and Russia moved to a new plateau, with wars fought on the territory of other nation-states in the first decade of the new century. While Russia's war in Georgia lasted only a few days, its roots in the past were deep and its impact on relations with other states in the near future was considerable. America's wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were brief in terms of achieving the initial objective of

in Russian-American relations in the post-Cold War world
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

Introduction Afghanistan’s experiences with war and resistance, development and crisis, ideology and big-power politics have had powerful influences and serve as a backdrop to the military–humanitarian relationship. The country’s history has been well covered elsewhere and the features of it political history are summarized in Table 4

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
Strategies for global change

This book analyses the evolving Anglo-American counter-terror propaganda strategies that spanned the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as reconstruction, between 2001 and 2008. It offers insights into the transformation beyond this period, tracking many key developments as much as possible up to the time of writing (2013) and providing a retrospective on the 'war on terror'. Using empirical data located within multiple spheres, the book draws on sociology, political science and international relations, developing an interdisciplinary analysis of political communication in the international system. It shows how media technologies presented legal, structural and cultural problems for what were seen as rigid propaganda systems defined by their emergence in an old media system of sovereign states with stable target audiences. Propaganda successes and advances were an inconsistent by-product both of malfunction and of relationships, cultures and rivalries, both domestically and between the partners. The differing social relations of planners and propagandists to wider society create tensions within the 'machine', however leaders may want it to function. The book demonstrates that the 'messy' nature of bureaucracy and international systems as well as the increasingly fluid media environment are all important in shaping what actually happens. In a context of initial failures in formal coordination, the book stresses the importance of informal relationships to planners in the propaganda war. This situated Britain in an important yet precarious position within the Anglo-American propaganda effort, particularly in Iraq.

Colonial cultures of sport and diplomacy in Afghanistan, 1919–49
Maximilian Drephal

Colonial cultures of sport and diplomacy in Afghanistan 89 5 Contesting independence: colonial cultures of sport and diplomacy in Afghanistan, 1919–49 Maximilian Drephal Introduction: Afghanistan’s independence celebrations Afghanistan became independent in 1919, and the Afghan state commemorated the moment of statal independence and the making of an Afghan nation during weeklong celebrations in each following year, staging military parades, organising cultural programmes and hosting sports competitions. Amir Amanullah Khan established the festivities

in Sport and diplomacy
Abstract only
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

Humanitarianism and war in Afghanistan On 4 June 2004, five staff members of the international NGO, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), were murdered in northwest Afghanistan. Within a month, the organization had withdrawn after more than two decades of providing assistance to the country. According to a senior MSF

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan