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The Indian Army and the fight for empire, 1918–20
Kate Imy

, the Third Anglo-Afghan War sent many of the Indian Army's soldiers back out to an active war zone to prevent an Afghan invasion into north-western India. When world powers convened to sign the Treaty of Versailles, naming the terms of peace in June 1919, this also failed to signal an end to fighting for Indian Army men. Many South Asian soldiers journeyed to Egypt, Mesopotamia and Palestine to put down rebellions or implement military control within and beyond Britain's existing protectorates and new League of Nations mandates. 3

in Exiting war
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Warriors and administrators
Patrick O’Leary

; Alexander’s Macedonians, Mongols, Turks, Babur the first of the Mughals, have all fought their way through its rugged defiles, 2 or, in recognition of the difficulty of forcing the passes, have paid off the hill tribes. 3 Going the other way, the armies of British India marched twice into Afghanistan to suffer some of their greatest defeats. 4 The twin and associated problems posed

in Servants of the empire
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Romain Fathi, Margaret Hutchison, Andrekos Varnava, and Michael J. K. Walsh

Christian groups in creating independent states. Finally, control was perhaps the most important characteristic of the 1918–20 moment for the British Empire. Asserting or reasserting command over local populations became a key feature of post-war imperial policies. There was a redeployment of violence, material and attention from the former war fronts to the contested margins of the British Empire. Clashes in Egypt, Malta, India and the third Anglo-Afghan war are instances of colonial contestation and local uprisings during which the British Empire

in Exiting war
The Army in India and the North-West Frontier, 1920–1939
Tim Moreman

The North-West Frontier of India, the most sensitive strategic frontier of the British Empire, posed a complex defence problem for the Army in India during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A constant threat of war with the Soviet Union or Afghanistan was combined with a local and more immediate problem of tribal control – one which tied down large numbers of British and

in Guardians of empire
Romain Fathi, Margaret Hutchison, Andrekos Varnava, and Michael J. K. Walsh

many challenges posed by the 1918–20 moment to the Empire, this period was approached by imperialists as one of opportunities. By the early 1920s, and increasingly by 1923 with the Treaty of Lausanne, it became clear that the immediate aftermath of the First World War witnessed the last global hurrahs, that is, imperial expansions, of the British Empire. The 1921 renegotiation of the Rawalpindi Treaty with Afghanistan and Mustapha Kemal's proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 prefigured a much wider and stronger wave of anticolonial movement that would

in Exiting war
Understanding Britain’s 1918–20 moment in the Middle East
Clothilde Houot

of new territories and the officially acknowledged status of the Ottoman Empire as one of the defeated powers gave Britain the opportunity – and to some extent the legitimacy – to extend its influence in an area already surrounded by British imperial possessions. From the middle of the nineteenth century, Britain had started to conclude exclusive treaties and agreements with the subsequently named Trucial States on the Persian Gulf shore as well as in Persia and Afghanistan. By the outbreak of the First World War, Cyprus, Aden and Egypt, which had been under

in Exiting war
Sentiment and affect in mid-twentiethcentury development volunteering
Agnieszka Sobocinska

, 2015); Timothy Nunan, Humanitarian Invasion: Global Development in Cold War Afghanistan (New York, NY, and London, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2016). 5 Sara Ahmed, The Cultural Politics of Emotion (Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 2004); Lila Abu-Lughod and Catherine A. Lutz, ‘Introduction: Emotion, Discourse, and

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995
Patrick O’Leary

Third Afghan War in 1919 that the tribes seized the opportunity to cause trouble all along the frontier and to attack the lines of communications of advancing British and Indian troops. In particular, the Mahsuds and Waziris were aroused and continued to provoke strong actions against them almost until the outbreak of the Second World War. 21 Curzon’s despotism, however benevolent

in Servants of the empire
Edward M. Spiers

The abrupt termination of military operations and railway building in the Eastern Sudan followed the rapid deterioration of Anglo-Russian relations after the Penjdeh Incident (23 March 1885), in which the Russians killed some 600 Afghans. 1 Arguably the ensuing rift was the closest that Britain and Russia came to war during the late nineteenth century as attention refocused upon the north-west frontier and the primacy of

in Engines for empire
British consuls and colonial connections on China’s western frontiers, 1880–1943
Author: Emily Whewell

This book tells the story of British imperial agents and their legal powers on the British-Chinese frontiers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It offers new perspectives on the British presence in Yunnan and Xinjiang in western China and the legal connections to the British colonies of India and Burma. It examines how the mobility of people across borders forced consuls to adapt and shape law to accommodate them. Salt and opium smugglers, Indian and Afghan traders, and itinerant local populations exposed the jurisdictional gaps between consular and colonial authority. Local and transfrontier mobility defined and shaped British jurisdiction across the frontier in complex ways. It argues that frontier consular agents played key roles in creating forms of transfrontier legal authority in order to govern these migratory communities. Consular legal practices coexisted alongside, and often took advantage of, other local customs and legal structures. The incorporation of indigenous elites, customary law and Chinese authority was a distinctive feature of frontier administration, with mediation an important element of establishing British authority in a contested legal environment. The book is essential reading for historians of China, the British Empire, and socio-legal historians interested in the role of law in shaping semicolonial and colonial societies.