Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 56 items for :

  • International Relations x
  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

in 1859, leaving more than 30,000 dead and wounded in a single day of combat. Henry Dunant, a Swiss citizen who was trying to get in contact with Napoleon III to request a concession in Algeria, came upon the battlefield and the dying, and the spectacle shocked the fervent evangelical (he was one of the founders of the Young Men’s Christian Association, later known as the YMCA). Dunant took an active part in organising first aid for the wounded, regardless of nationality

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

available. It wasn’t until 2013, when two ACTED employees were kidnapped in an area of Syria where we were also present, that the directorate and Board of Directors met to set up a crisis unit. Task Two: Developing a Risk-Management Methodology for the Field From 2012, I organised one-day risk-analysis workshops during each of my visits (be it Colombia, Myanmar, Algeria, the Sahel or the Democratic Republic of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

and the Congo, or the British and Mau Mau, or the French in Algeria. As the Americans joined the fray post World War II (after Nazi Germany’s attempt to exterminate the Jews, and after the US dropped two atomic bombs on civilians without warning), we can fast-forward to the use of nerve agents in Vietnam, the mass bombing of civilians in Cambodia, the giving of a green light to the government in East Pakistan to commit genocide in what is now Bangladesh or the political support the US gave to Pinochet and the Khmer Rouge. We can go back to the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Arabs, Israelis, and the limits of military force
Author: Jeremy Pressman

The Arab–Israeli conflict has been at the centre of international affairs for decades. Despite repeated political efforts, the confrontation and casualties continue, especially in fighting between Israelis and Palestinians. This new assessment emphasizes the role that military force plays in blocking a diplomatic resolution. Many Arabs and Israelis believe that the only way to survive or to be secure is through the development, threat, and use of military force and violence. This idea is deeply flawed and results in missed diplomatic opportunities and growing insecurity. Coercion cannot force rivals to sign a peace agreement to end a long-running conflict. Sometimes negotiations and mutual concessions are the key to improving the fate of a country or national movement. Using short historical case studies from the 1950s through to today, the book explores and pushes back against the dominant belief that military force leads to triumph while negotiations and concessions lead to defeat and further unwelcome challenges. In The sword is not enough, we learn both what makes this idea so compelling to Arab and Israeli leaders and how it eventually may get dislodged.

A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Bassam Tibi

. Political Islam and post-bipolar security in the Middle East As a recent development, the politicization of religion is not restricted to Islam, insofar as it can be observed in other religions as well, be it Hinduism or Judaism – among others. 3 When it comes to Islam one cannot escape witnessing the Bin Laden and, earlier, the Iran connection of terrorism. 4 In Algeria the

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

terrorist violence in Africa and the ones that pose the most serious threat to security. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) Formerly known as the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), it grew out of the 1990s Algerian civil war and embraced the global jihadist struggle by ultimately rebranding itself in January 2007 as al-Qaeda’s North African affiliate: “al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb.” The group operates in Algeria, Tunisia, southern Libya, and across the pan-Sahel from Mauritania to Chad. Following the outbreak of the Tuareg nationalist

in African security in the twenty-first century
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

safeguarding these new empires. The harsh economic reality was that these colonies, with few exceptions, were expensive for metropolitan powers to maintain and defend. Securing colonial borders from other European interlopers, establishing even a rudimentary administrative structure, developing a basic economic infrastructure, and ensuring control over often restless new African subjects were costly both in terms of money and manpower. For example, the pride of French colonialism, Algeria, had a colonial budget deficit of 93 million francs in 1910 (about $450 million in

in African security in the twenty-first century
Data and measurement
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

than a decade of a revolutionary struggle, the Chinese Revolution culminated in 1949 with the victory of communist forces. The principal means by which these Third World countries achieved their independence was through insurgency. With a few exceptions (e.g., Algeria, Palestine, and Vietnam), terrorism was a relatively minor ingredient in these insurgencies.4 In some places, insurgents were worried that terrorist tactics would backfire, making more enemies than friends for their cause. The role of terrorism during these insurgencies became an important consideration

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds
Eşref Aksu

powers. What seemed ‘internal’ conflicts to the old colonialists (meaning internal to their colonial empires, as in Algeria or Rhodesia) were considered ‘international’ by the superpowers (meaning that the other superpower might intrude into that conflict at any moment). In this sense, the UN’s response to intra-state conflicts could not but reflect an overwhelming preoccupation with international

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change