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Approaching the Other
François Burgat

In September 1973, after this “round-the-world trip,” I moved to Algeria. Since my PhD also involved teaching at the Law faculty of the University of Constantine, this also meant leaving strictly student life behind. It is at this stage that I took up a less impressionistic, more professional, and more systematic approach to knowledge. Algeria—which had, via cousins from there, filled my adolescent imagination—was no longer quite unknown to me. It had not been a part of my “small” tour of the Mediterranean. But

in Understanding Political Islam
The international connection
Francesco Cavatorta

3 Explaining Algeria’s transition: the international connection This chapter has three main objectives. First of all it aims to construct a framework of transitions that includes international variables, using theoretical assumptions drawn from international relations theories. Such framework can also help understand the subsequent role that the country under examination will play in the international system. The second objective is to specify the components of this framework. In particular, it will focus on detailing the two fundamental dimensions briefly

in The international dimension of the failed Algerian transition
Democracy betrayed?

This book builds a theoretical framework through which previously neglected international factors are brought into the analyses of transitions to democracy. It then explores the case of Algeria. It contributes to the literature on democratisation and provides an analysis of Algerian politics during the last two decades. More specifically, it examines how international variables influence the behaviour and activities of Algerian political actors. By bridging the comparative politics and international relations literature, the book offers a new understanding of the initiation, development and outcome of transitions to democracy. International factors, far from being marginal and secondary, are treated as central explanatory variables. Such external factors were crucial in the failed Algerian transition to democracy, when the attitudes and actions of key international actors shaped the domestic game and its final outcome. In particular, the book looks at the controversial role of the Islamic Salvation Front and how its part was perceived abroad. In addition, it argues that international factors significantly contribute to explaining the persistence of authoritarian rule in Algeria, to its integration into the global economy and its co-optation into the war on terror.

George Joffé

Introduction The independent Algerian state was born through extreme violence and, during its more than five decades of independent existence, has experienced repeated episodes of violent political convulsion. Indeed, since 1980, violence has been the leitmotif of Algeria's political evolution and, since the mid-1980s, this has often taken the form of non-state terrorist extremism, 1 particularly during the 1990s when the country was plunged into civil war. Since the civil war ended at the start of the twenty-first century, the country has

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Francesco Cavatorta

4 The external context of the Algerian transition Before analysing whether the hypotheses outlined in Chapter 3 are confirmed by the evidence gathered, it is necessary to describe in greater detail the external environment with which Algeria had to contend before, during and after its problematic transition. The external environment Huntington’s study (1991: 45) of why so many countries democratised or attempted to do so at a particular moment sees ‘the unprecedented global economic growth of the 1960s’ as central. In Algeria however, the timing of the process

in The international dimension of the failed Algerian transition
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

in 1859, leaving more than 30,000 dead and wounded in a single day of combat. Henry Dunant, a Swiss citizen who was trying to get in contact with Napoleon III to request a concession in Algeria, came upon the battlefield and the dying, and the spectacle shocked the fervent evangelical (he was one of the founders of the Young Men’s Christian Association, later known as the YMCA). Dunant took an active part in organising first aid for the wounded, regardless of nationality

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

available. It wasn’t until 2013, when two ACTED employees were kidnapped in an area of Syria where we were also present, that the directorate and Board of Directors met to set up a crisis unit. Task Two: Developing a Risk-Management Methodology for the Field From 2012, I organised one-day risk-analysis workshops during each of my visits (be it Colombia, Myanmar, Algeria, the Sahel or the Democratic Republic of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

and the Congo, or the British and Mau Mau, or the French in Algeria. As the Americans joined the fray post World War II (after Nazi Germany’s attempt to exterminate the Jews, and after the US dropped two atomic bombs on civilians without warning), we can fast-forward to the use of nerve agents in Vietnam, the mass bombing of civilians in Cambodia, the giving of a green light to the government in East Pakistan to commit genocide in what is now Bangladesh or the political support the US gave to Pinochet and the Khmer Rouge. We can go back to the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The integration of authoritarian Algeria in the international system
Francesco Cavatorta

7 From partners to allies: the integration of authoritarian Algeria in the international system The research findings support the contention that the international dimension played a significant role in the origin, development and conclusion of the failed Algerian transition. In particular, a set of coinciding interests between key domestic and international constituencies was decisive in ending an electoral process that would have seen the establishment of a FIS-led government. The process of democratisation might have ended even if the FIS had been allowed to

in The international dimension of the failed Algerian transition
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Algeria’s failed process of democratisation
Francesco Cavatorta

1 Introduction: Algeria’s failed process of democratisation Algeria’s failed transition In October 1988 Algeria experienced a seemingly sudden explosion of street violence triggered by economic and social discontent. People protested against the economic reforms the government had introduced and for a few days chaos reigned in the country. These riots were to be a turning point because they provided the opportunity for President Chadli and for the soft-liners within the regime to introduce significant political reforms resulting in an attempt to turn the country

in The international dimension of the failed Algerian transition