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Pan-African Philosopher of Democracy and Development
L. Adele Jinadu

historical-material and psycho-cultural connections between racism, colonialism, post-colonialism and globalisation. Frantz attended the private Lycée Victor Schoelcher from 1939 to 1943. In 1944, he enlisted in the Free French Forces, the resistance organisation formed by General Charles de Gaulle in 1943 to liberate France from German occupation. Fanon saw active duty in North Africa (in Casablanca, Morocco, and Oran, Algeria), and in France and Germany, and was decorated with the Croix de Guerre for gallantry in military operations in Besançon in eastern France. He

in The Pan-African Pantheon
Sexual violence and trauma in the ‘war on terror’
Joanna Bourke

our own responses to their pain. The very process of discussing injustice inevitably promotes the distancing process that we so loudly lament. The debate invites us to assess what becomes a spectacle of pain and to do so aesthetically, contemplatively. Like it or not, vision is an act of aggression, a disciplining activity. As one of Iraq’s greatest female poets, Nazik al-Mala’ika, put it in her poem about the torture by the French of an Algerian resistance fighter: The details of your torture were on every tongue, And that hurt us, it was hard for our

in ‘War on terror’
Silvia Salvatici

programme. 38 France provides the best example in this respect. At the end of the 1950s the refugee problem for the French was directly connected to Algerian war of independence, which had led to the forced migration of around 250,000 people to Tunisia and Morocco. Numerous humanitarian organisations – including the League of Red Cross Societies, Oxfam, and the British and American Friends – intervened to provide aid to the Algerians sheltering in tent cities. In addition, relief for the refugees was one of the main activities of the Algerian Red Crescent, which had been

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
John McLeod

national consciousness As we noted in Chapter 1 , Frantz Fanon has become a hugely important figure in the field of postcolonialism and is central to any discussion of the theorising of anti-colonial resistance. As we observed previously, in 1953 he was appointed as head of the Blida-Joinville Hospital in Algeria at a time when the Algerians’ struggle against France for national independence was mounting. Deeply affected by his experiences of racism in North Africa during the war, and politicised by his work with Algerian patients who suffered mental torment as a

in Beginning postcolonialism (second edition)
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The end of International Relations?
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

-Western antics. In neighbouring Algeria legislative elections were interrupted when the first electoral rounds suggested victory for the fundamentalist Islamic Salvation Front (FIS). Fearing the election of an Islamic government, the government intervened in January 1992. It banned FIS and cancelled the elections. This triggered an armed insurgency between Algeria’s security forces and the armed wing of FIS (the Armed Islamic Group or AIG). The insurgency quickly spread and caused much international concern. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was weakened by

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
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Some notes on ‘terror’
Chris Miller

sat down’. 26 (In this volume, Thomas Pogge cites Dennis Halliday, former coordinator of humanitarian relief to Iraq and Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations: ‘I had been instructed to implement a policy that satisfies the definition of genocide: a deliberate policy that has effectively killed well over a million individuals, children and adults’.) Bin Laden goes on to talk about democracy: ‘When the Islamic party in Algeria wanted to practice democracy and they won the election, you unleashed your collaborators in the Algerian army on them, and

in ‘War on terror’
Alistair Cole

constitutional treaty in the 2005 referendum. 2 The state of urgency, ruled by a law dating from 1955 at the height of the Algerian crisis, is not to be confused with the state of emergency (article 16), which allows the president to suspend the normal operation of the constitution. 3 For example, according to the IFOP–Fiducial poll for i-tele, Paris Match and Sud Radio (17 April 2016), Le Pen would win a (very hypothetical) Le Pen–Hollande run-off in 2017 by 53% to 47%: www.ifop.com/media/poll/3363-1-study_file.pdf (last accessed 30 August 2017).

in Emmanuel Macron and the two years that changed France
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Alistair Cole

formal state visits to China, Algeria, India and the US, inter alia , which combined diplomacy with trade and cultural promotion. Substantively, also, under Macron, the French president was seen once again to be performing an active role in terms of foreign policy. Amongst the many examples, let us mention the attempts to reaffirm the centrality of an eventual French role as mediator in the Middle East and to mediate the Lebanon–Saudi Arabia crisis in late 2017. There are important differences in relation to his immediate predecessors. From the very beginning

in Emmanuel Macron and the two years that changed France
Peter Barry

phase, which is to say before it was known as such, postcolonial criticism took as its main subject matter white representations of colonial countries and criticised these for their limitations and their bias: thus, critics would discuss the representation of Africa in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness , or of India in E. M. Forster's A Passage to India , or of Algeria in Albert Camus's The Outsider. This corresponds to the early 1970s phase of feminist criticism when the subject matter was the representation of women by male novelists like D. H. Lawrence or Henry

in Beginning theory (fourth edition)
Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

original critiques of imperialism and colonialism came from the pen of a French doctor, Franz Fanon. First published in French in 1952, Black Skin, White Masks directly confronted both European racism and its corrosive effects upon the colonized peoples. Working in Algeria, then a French colony, Fanon came to empathize deeply with the Algerian independence movement and in 1961 he published The Wretched of the Earth , ‘a revolutionary manifesto of decolonization’. 13 The book is a passionate critique of European religious proselytizing and violent conquest

in The houses of history