The chapter provides an annotated translation of the Chronica Adfonsi Imperatoris, or Chronicle of the Emperor Alfonso (CAI). It is a panegyric in prose and verse devoted to the deeds of Alfonso VII of Leon-Castile. This Chronicle is of the period from his accession to the throne in 1126 till the campaign to conquer the port city of Almeria in 1147. To all appearances a contemporary (or near-contemporary) witness to the events it describes, the CAI furnishes the principal narrative account of the political and military affairs of the Leonese monarchy during the period in question. In an Iberian context, the CAI is a strikingly original piece of historiography. Quite apart from the very large number of Biblical phrases that were incorporated wholesale into the narrative of the CAI, the influence of the Vulgate is everywhere conspicuous in the author's style, syntax and vocabulary.
Jews as Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
as medieval and early modern theologians were concerned, was that
achieved by the North African bishop and theologian, Augustine of Hippo.
He converted to Christianity in Milan, in 386, after years of close
association with the dualist movement known as Manichæism, 12 which was strong at
the time in the land of his birth [in modern Algeria]. He was to be an
immensely significant figure in the history of Western Christendom
translation from Hebrew]
(a) Before the 1492 expulsion:
Rabbi Shamah ben Shlomo Durán (Algeria, c. 1450)
We even presume to say that not
only forced converts but also forced apostates, even in the case of
incest, continue to be part of Israel. Their marriages are marriages;
their act of repudiation [divorce] an act of repudiation; their