Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas
million people remained
in extreme poverty (less than US$1.90 per day) in 2015, while nearly one in
every two people in the world (46 per cent) were trying to live on less than
US$5.70 per day ( World Bank,
2018 : 69). Global hunger, once in decline, has increased over the past three
years, reaching a level in excess of 821 million people ( WHO, 2018a ), while Asia had the highest absolute number
(515 million people), sub-Saharan Africa had the highest prevalence, with 23
‘Central America’, displayed reproductions of images from the IDPL, including some by renowned Canadian photographers like Dilip Metha, accompanied by the words of writers and the editor-in-chief. ‘We also made maps by continent, we had … Africa, Asia and the Americas,’ recounted Marc Rockbrune. ‘We also had a silent map. It was just the outline of the world and the educators could work in class with a map on which there was just the outline, you didn’t see the countries. It was an interesting tool’ ( ACDI, 1986 ; CIDA, 1988 ; Canadian Geographic Education, 2008
’ (para. 25, emphasis in original).
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identifies the threats to American national interests ( ibid .:
25–6): 1) Russia and China, the two great ‘revisionist powers’; 2) North
Korea and Iran, two ‘rogue states’ that undermine geopolitical equilibrium in
Northeast Asia and the Middle East; 3) ‘Jihadist terrorist groups’ and
international criminal organisations that propagate violence and traffic drugs and arms.
The document offers an extensive list of actions to be undertaken by the US to achieve
strategic objectives and confront rivals, from controlling borders to increasing military
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she organises into three
groups by the geographical regions they come from: South East Asians (from Cambodia,
Burma and Thailand), Africans and the third group, comprising Iraqis, Iranians and
Afghans. She discovers differences in their ability to use telecommunications technology
(e.g. telephones, fax machines and mobile phones), depending on their countries of
origin, suggesting that conflict, war or government surveillance hindered their
abilities. Leung also observes that exposure to new
which a resurgent Russia has stepped. These are
structural shifts in the sense that even the most liberal government in the US would find it
hard to throw its weight around when China is always available – in South East Asia, in
Africa, in Central Asia – to provide financing and diplomatic support with few strings
attached (and to threaten forms of retaliation when such inducements fail). The rise of Trump
can even be explained as a reaction to a sense of gathering national decline, hence his campaign
slogan: ‘Make America Great Again
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