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Zheng Yangwen

and the Qing regime as they had to pay for the indemnities after the Sino-French War of 1884–1885, the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895, and the Boxer Rebellion, which was brutally suppressed by the so-called Eight Country Allied Army in 1900. This lesson studies these wars waged on and in China. It begins by looking at the situation outside of China’s borders, in the country’s wider sphere of influence in Southeast and Northeast Asia, before returning to see how the ‘scramble for China’ unfolded inside the country and heralded the end of the Qing dynasty’s Mandate of

in Ten Lessons in Modern Chinese History
A cultural biography of Red-White-Blue, from Hong Kong to Louis Vuitton
Wessie Ling

-White-Blue bags. The chapter concludes with a discussion of Louis Vuitton’s replica of this plaid bag. The questions addressed here include authenticity, cultural identity, and the power dynamic between high and low culture. Specifically, the chapter juxtaposes Western fashion institutions and Asian street culture, and examines the relationship of Chinese production to the European-American fashion system. The analysis draws on empirical and ethnographic research, including interviews with makers and users, and detailed readings of the contemporary global fashion scene as

in European fashion
John McLeod

of colonialism. Let us take first the issue of postcolonialism’s geographies. John Thieme’s excellent The Arnold Anthology of Post-Colonial Literatures in English (Edward Arnold, 1996 ) divides the field geographically as follows: West Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, North Africa, Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, New Zealand and the South Pacific, South Asia (consisting of Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand), and ‘Trans-Cultural Writing’. Look how in Thieme’s anthology there is a greater sensitivity to the differences within particular

in Beginning postcolonialism (second edition)
Guns, ships and printing presses
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

. Taxation was one way of raising revenues. Long-distance trade was another. But such trade was a fairly recent option: it was made possible by new ship models and improved means of navigation. Such maritime innovations also made possible expeditions of discovery and adventure. Later, when cannons were fitted to the new ships, the Europeans were enabled to pillage and colonize America, Africa and Asia. Colonization, then, attended trade as a way in which the states of Western Europe could raise much-needed revenues. And with these new sources of revenues the new European

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Systems and structures in an age of upheaval
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

was replaced by the young, charismatic John F. Kennedy. His presidency symbolized the advent of a new generation with new political ideals. The USA was deeply shaken when Kennedy was assassinated in Texas in October 1963 and replaced by the Texan Senator Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–69). In the USSR, the Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was toppled in a palace coup in 1964 and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev. One of the most significant issues that marked international relations during these years was that of decolonization. Nations in Asia and Africa demanded self

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Abstract only
Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

the British Library entitled ‘Trading Places’. This exhibition focused on Asia before the 1840s and, in particular, trade and the British East India Company. The company was originally founded in 1600 to pursue trade with the East Indies, and later with India and Qing China, eventually ruling large parts of India before the British government asserted direct control in 1858. What are the implications of the temporal framework selected for this exhibition? Is it possible to separate the activities of major companies trading overseas in the past from the policies and

in The houses of history
Abstract only
Neil Collins and David O’Brien

the 19th NPC in 2017, President Xi communicated his vision of China taking centre stage in the world. It would establish an alternative model to that of the West, in which collectivism trumps individualism, harmony reigns and coexistence replaces domination in international affairs. The Xi challenge resonates with a wider advocacy of Asian values that Mahbubani and others claim are more appropriate for that region than the democratic values and institutions of the West: ‘Europe should … be … a natural candidate to lead the world. For over two centuries, Europe has

in The politics of everyday China
John McLeod

after the Second World War. The ‘First World’ referred to the rich, predominantly Western nations in Europe, America and Australasia; the ‘Second World’ denoted the Soviet Union and its communist allies; while the ‘Third World’ consisted in the main of the former colonies such as countries in Africa and South Asia which were economically under-developed and dependent upon the wealthy nations for their economic fortunes. This mapping of the world has remained influential, for better or worse, in a variety of discourses. In terms of postcolonialism and feminism, the

in Beginning postcolonialism (second edition)
Zheng Yangwen

southern China became crowded or unwelcoming, many continued their escape to the coastal provinces and beyond, to Southeast Asia. It seems that Sumatra (Indonesia) was a safe haven for the Chinese by the early Ming. Admiral Zheng He’s translator, Ma Huan, wrote about the Chinese community he found in the Sumatran city of Palembang in the early fifteenth century: Many people in this country are from Guangdong, Zhangzhou and Quanzhou who fled here; they are rich. So is the land. As the local saying goes – you plant one season and harvest three seasons.… During the

in Ten Lessons in Modern Chinese History
Zheng Yangwen

allowed trade, which for the British mainly meant buying tea from and selling opium to China, to reach a level unseen before. We have briefly looked at the reason for the increasing British demand for tea. What about China’s demand for opium? Opium had been among the many items given as tribute from South and Southeast Asian countries to the Ming court since 1483, if not earlier. Just like tea, this royal luxury had begun to filter down the social ladder by the seventeenth century, thanks partly to the coastal Chinese who travelled to and from Southeast Asia. They

in Ten Lessons in Modern Chinese History