frequently in the Buddhist canon. Tapping these and also receiving donations from landowners was in effect a reaching-out to rural areas as well. Inscriptions from Bharhut record donors from Vidisha, Pataliputra, Bhojakata, Bhogavardhana and Nasik, which was an extensive geographical reach.
A contemporary text refers to merchants and goods from Bactria, China and Alexandria. 18 Some votive inscriptions refer to Yavanas – people from west Asia and the eastern Mediterranean – some coming overland from Hellenistic commercial centres and some through the maritime trade with
through Byzantine territory in the Balkans. Thus, as quickly as possible the Emperor ushered the German army across the Bosphorus to Asia Minor. The original plan was for Conrad to wait for Louis’s army at Constantinople, which he should have done. Nevertheless, perhaps propelled forward by a sense of national pride, he decided to march to Antioch and wait for the French King there. Events proved difficult for Conrad. Soon after he departed from Nicaea, the German Emperor met a Turkish army at Dorylaeum, the same place the first crusaders had vanquished Kilij Arslan
south into productive land, which in the fifteenth century was further transformed into rice fields. The East Asian gift of rice production first to Sicily and then to Lombardy and Piedmont has been reciprocated in Milan’s gift of risotto to the world. 9
When workers from the countryside flocked into towns in search of the jobs these had to offer, many of them were simultaneously seeking to free themselves of servile obligations. For their part many communes responded with statutes that granted both of these desires. 10 The common
Between 1300 and 1550, England was a temporary or permanent home to hundreds of thousands of people of foreign birth. These immigrants – male and female, adults and children – came from other parts of the British Isles, from more or less all the regions of continental Europe, and (especially at the end of the period) from the wider world of Africa and Asia. They settled not just in the major cities and towns but also in rural communities, having a documented presence in every county of England. They numbered in their ranks aristocrats
Press, 1995). For key articles on gender and ethnicity in the volume Intersections of Gender, Religion and Ethnicity , see Hannah Meyer, ‘Gender, Jewish creditors and Christian debtors in thirteenth-century Exeter’, pp. 104 – 24; Kirsten Fenton, ‘Gendering the First Crusade in William of Malmesbury’s Gesta Regum Anglorum ’, pp. 125 – 39; and Kim Phillips, ‘Warriors, Amazons and Isles of Women:medieval travel writing and the construction of Asian femininities’, pp. 183 – 207.
4 M. Griffiths, ‘Native society on the Anglo-Norman frontier: the
Mediterranean and Asian religions than they were in
Latin Christianity. See Barbara Ambros, Emplacing a Pilgrimage: The
Oyama Cult and Regional Religion in Early Modern Japan (Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), pp. 143–74.
3 On Watling Street, see Howard Loxton, Pilgrimage to Canterbury
(London: Rowman & Littlefield, 1978), pp. 144–60; Christopher Taylor,
Roads and Tracks of Britain (London: Dent, 1979) pp. 41–4; and F. M.
Stenton, ‘The road system of medieval England’, Economic History
Review, 7:1 (1936), 1–21.
4 Taylor, Roads and Tracks of Britain, pp. 136
ignores the processes acting behind them.
The years following the catastrophic mid-fourteenth-century Black Death led to social transformations across Europe and Asia. Ireland was no exception. Coupled with political instability, Ireland's changes manifested in one form as the tower house. Thousands of tower houses were built, and although they were not particularly expensive to build, nor were they cheap and quick to construct. While some scholars have wondered how much of a meaningful impact a £10 government subsidy created in the mid
following century. 4
At the same time, though, the demands placed upon the saints and their cults experienced no such decline. Indeed they were kept busy by one natural catastrophe or institutional crisis after another, to cite only: the advent of a ‘little ice age’ and the Great Famine of 1315–22; the arrival from Central Asia of a lethal pandemic of plague starting in 1347; widespread warfare; outbreaks of civil strife; and the spectacle both bewildering and degrading of rival claimants to the papacy. 5
‘The travels of Roger of Howden and his views of the Irish, Scots and Welsh’, ANS , 20 (1998 for 1997), 151– 69.
65 For a discussion of the distinctions between women as commanders and as combatants, see Kim Phillips, ‘Warriors, Amazons and Isles of Women:medieval travel writing and the construction of Asian femininities’, in Cordelia Beattie and Kirsten A. Fenton (eds), Intersections of Gender, Religion and Ethnicity in the Middle Ages (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), pp. 183 – 207, at pp. 184 – 5, who notes that medieval writers
few outstandingly important metropolitans, such those of apostolic
Ephesus and Caesarea, chief sees of Asia and Pontus. 11 Its continuing quasi-patriarchal
implications were especially apparent in Cyprus, where from the late
fifth century the metropolitan-archbishop of Constantia’s
authority was as final as any patriarch’s and characterized by
particular marks of distinction, such as the right to bear a sceptre in