during the war roused sympathy for the beleaguered Brits and helped swing the United States into joining the fight against Hitler.)
In the present day, radio still has an important role to play. BBC’s Radio 4 maintains a constant output of news-based programmes, which help inform the station’s primarily middle-class, educated audience. Foremost is the Today programme, which runs from 6.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. every weekday and features nationally known presenters like John Humphrys and James Naughtie. Because it attracts an audience of over a million decision
made exaggerations within the September 2002 dossier – allegedly based on authoritative military intelligence – in order to persuade Parliament to support the Bush initiative led to the suicide of a respected defence scientist, Dr David Kelly – the alleged source of insider suggestions of Blair’s embellishments made to the BBC. There were accusations that the government was to blame and Lord Hutton was called in to investigate. His report exonerated the government but the evidence revealed, to the satisfaction of many, that Number 10 staff had indeed intervened to
The Anglosphere, England and the Brexit referendum
Thames and Tiber, 2015 and 2018
If two politicians’ ideas enjoyed a retrospective and posthumous success as a result of Brexit, it was those of Winston Churchill and Enoch Powell. The fiftieth anniversary of Churchill’s funeral took place in January 2015 with a re-enactment of his funereal trip along the Thames. Three years later, Enoch Powell’s ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech was dramatised on BBC radio.
The dominant memory of Churchill remained that of his leadership during Britain’s ‘finest hour’ in 1940, even if
BBC News Politics, 2015a and BBC News Politics, 2015b ). Further muddying the national waters was opposition from an English Unionist perspective. Conservative MP and member of Commonwealth and Foreign Affairs Committee, Andrew Rosindell, was concerned that EVEL might ‘damage the fabric of our cherished Union and lead to a situation where this House could be deemed to be the representative assembly of England, rather than the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland’ (Hansard, 2015a , 22 October, vol. 600, col. 1119
’, noting that ‘he appeals to the socially conservative instincts of people left behind by globalisation’ (Leonard, 2015 ). When he finally made a contribution to the campaign, George Osborne argued that Brexit was ‘a battle for the soul of the country’, adding that he did not want to live in ‘Nigel Farage’s vision of Britain. It is mean, divisive and it is not who we are as a country’ (cited in BBC News, 2016d ). What Farage’s vision of the country was, explained David Cameron, was ‘Little England’. Cameron urged voters to ‘to fight for a Great Britain inside a
solid lead. Indeed, Andrew Cooper (aka Baron Cooper of Windrush), the founder of the polling firm Populus and David Cameron’s pollster, had predicted a 10 per cent win for Remain, according to one newspaper ( Sunday Times , 26 June 2016, A1).
The buoyancy was further boosted when UKIP leader Nigel Farage apparently conceded defeat shortly after polls had closed at 10 pm. In an ill-tempered outburst – peppered by a quantum of sour grapes (and undoubtedly several pints of ale) – the Eurosceptic admitted to the BBC, ‘I think Remain will edge it, yes. The massive
States. Soon after the 2016 election, Nigel Farage met President-elect Trump in New York. A UKIP spokesman subsequently confirmed that Farage had asked the President-elect to return the now famous bust of Winston Churchill to the White House Oval Office. Farage was ‘especially pleased’ by Trump’s ‘very positive reaction’ to the idea, a symbol of a new friendship on the illiberal wing of Anglo-American politics (cited in BBC News, 2016k ). Writing in the Telegraph about the prospects for a post-EU free-trade agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States
normative parameters of political life, shaping what can, could, must, and might happen in our lives and in our world. This is just as true for us – as ordinary citizens who enjoy watching television – as it is for our political leaders. Reflect for a moment on how many hours you have spent watching C-SPAN or the BBC Parliament channel. How many hours have you invested in Game of Thrones or House of Cards or your favourite television show? The exploration and interrogation of popular culture and fictional television are imperative for political and social science. And
courts. The gradual emergence of the right to a remedy and, more broadly, access to justice into principles of customary international law 119 will put increasing pressure on national courts to allow challenges to the UN’s claim for immunity, unless the UN makes available alternative methods of redress, and financial resources to match. 120
Case Study 22: Sexual abuse by peacekeepers in the DR Congo
The following extract is taken from a BBC News report of 2004:
Faela is 13 and her son Joseph is just under six months old.
Sitting on the dusty ground in
Information sources in the British Brexit
Source: BMG Research, N: 1638,
available at www.bmgresearch.co.uk/bbc-important-
A survey carried out by BMG Research on