university, although communication still tended to be of a more public style. In Britain the initial publications and presentations of the Royal Society (established in 1660) were often formal but relatively accessible, designed for those with a more general interest, and it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the society’s publications and presentations took on a far more specialised nature (Knight, 2006 ).
Without a clear profession or its associated salary, ‘researchers’ or ‘practitioners’ of the time who did not teach the classical
general approach, the design of your study and the methods that you will use.
Consider the example from a student’s first attempt to frame her dissertation question and a couple of her sub-questions:
Main question: How do contemporary integration discourses construct Muslims, Britishness and their relations?
Sub-question 1: How do labels and narratives of radicalisation and community cohesion construct ideas of what it means to be British?
Sub-question 2: In what ways are Muslims constructed in relation to the War on Terror
Providing some basic numerical data: This can help to show the prevalence (or otherwise) of the phenomenon under consideration. For example, the opening paragraph of an answer to an essay question about racism in football could usefully include some figures about attitudes to ethnic differences from the British Social Attitudes Survey. These data might help you to show that racism persists in Britain. Whilst the figures may not be about football directly, they serve to contextualise the issue of racism in football against broader patterns of racism in society at large
and perfect British India (Pandey, 1990). In addition, this construction of difference is significant in assessing the extent of transformation of the economy. The acceleration of change to the Indian economy as asserted by the colonialists was not a total transformation. Evidence shows the existence of a pre-colonial capitalist economy within India, such as sustained trade links with the Middle East (Alavi, 1989). The creation of the central administration of colonial India does demonstrate a significant transformation of Indian society. The creation of surveys
Network for Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST) Conference
Redpop, Latin American and Caribbean Network for Science and Technology Popularisation
Science Communication Conference
Box 12.4 Selected academic journals of relevance to research communication
Applied Environmental Education and Communication
British Journal of Educational Technology
Citizen Science: Theory and Practice
Communicating Astronomy with the Public
point you towards the key parts of the book which might assist you with whatever it is you are currently writing.
1 It means that throughout this book we also assume British English spelling and conventions for writing, which can vary considerably from those in Australia, the United States and elsewhere where English is a main language.
benefits makes them an excellent research communication opportunity.
1 It is worth noting that there has been much critical discussion of media depictions of researchers, particularly related to gender and ethnicity (see, for example, Kitzinger et al. , 2008 ).
Bowater, L., and Yeoman, K., Science Communication: A Practical Guide for Scientists (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013).
British Science Association/Science Made Simple, ‘Advice for Presenters’. Retrieved 03 December 2014 at: www.britishscienceassociation.org/british
suggestions on how to write a guide to your argument in your opening paragraphs).
4. Data interpretation and analysis
Some essay questions will ask you to interrogate data, or to evaluate claims that are based on data, no matter what form the data take. You could be asked, for example, to: ‘Select three questions from the 2015 British Social Attitudes Survey, describe the results and interpret the findings in light of relevant academic research.’ While this book is not about analysing data, there are some common features to data interpretation and analysis
British society. The student uses a direct quotation along with summaries in his own words based on the notes he has made on the scholarly literature.
Whilst it is clear that friendship is an increasingly important relationship in many people’s lives, the adage ‘you can choose your friends but not your family’ may not be entirely true. Allan (1996: 100) argues that ‘friendships are not freely chosen. They are developed and sustained in the wider framework of people’s lives,’ referring to social factors such as location, workplace and even ethnicity
have led to opportunities for presenting TV programmes aimed at all sorts of age groups, including slots on Blue Peter a popular British children’s TV programme. Perhaps unsurprisingly, then, Brendan says there are lots of ways that his research can show impact, from commercial through to public engagement.
But behind it all sits the research, and that is important. The impact of Brendan’s work has a path back to the participants wired up to the latest adventure ride, or the infant sampling fruit on the look-out for the most tantalising taste. It follows a