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Michael Carter-Sinclair

coins to be handed in, in exchange for coins of equivalent face value, but made with less valuable metals. The Statthalterei suggested that this was because hoarding had been happening, perhaps because of exaggerated fears of enemy advances at the start of the war, and because the army had been paying farmers in cash for requisitioned supplies, at the high prices that prevailed in times of war. 46 Similar appeals went out for the return of banknotes which, it was suspected, had been buried in secret troves, again through fear of the consequences of war. 47 Appeals

in Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites
Elliot Vernon

’ by the Scottish ministers in London. The term appears to have been coined by Robert Baillie in April 1645. 11 Baillie and other presbyterian thinkers deployed the term ‘Erastian’ to slur various opponents who advanced arguments against the independent jurisdiction of the church in matters of discipline. The initial target of Baillie’s ire was the lawyer John Selden, who had applied his prodigious scholarship to challenge the assembly’s presbyterians. 12 Selden used his almost unparalleled knowledge of Hebrew learning to

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64
One experience inspiring generically divergent publications
Amy G. Tan

implication of Book One was that individuals too inclined to prosecute witches were over-concerned with avoiding physical and temporal affliction. Rather than patiently enduring suffering as opportunity for self-examination, some sought revenge upon suspected witches in hope this would relieve symptoms. Portions of Book Two took up the other side of this coin, censuring those whose

in The pastor in print
Fabian Graham

to calculate the answer before returning it to the table. He then asked me if I had five coins and asked me to put them on the table. He played with the coins in his hands for a few moments, looking at them as if they were of rare beauty, then ran his hand across his abacus again and felt the discs with intense concentration. I had been contemplating Bao Bei Ya and the development of new Underworld deities while waiting for my consultation, and he seemed to have sensed that England was not really on my mind. “What

in Voices from the Underworld
Fabian Graham

construction of strong nation-states have furnished the socio-political and ethnocultural catalysts for the inversion of religious antecedents required to render the veneration of Hell deities not only among the most popular forms of temple worship, but also as normative. The framework of analysis and an overview of recent socio-political developments influencing the two temple landscapes are detailed in Chapter 2 . Locating appropriate terminology to describe the ‘religion of the masses’ Academics have coined a variety of

in Voices from the Underworld
The social, economic and cultural improvement of Ireland and the Irish, 1721–39
Andrew Sneddon

recovery because many landlords had themselves fallen on hard times, largely as a result of the collapse of the joint-stock enterprise, the South Sea Company, in which they had invested heavily. The good harvests also failed to aid a general economic recovery because the woollen and provisions markets were still depressed. Ireland was also plagued by a shortage of low-denomination coins created by the recent outflow from Ireland of large amounts of silver coin. Population growth, in conjunction with economic stagnation, meant that beggary and vagrancy increased

in Witchcraft and Whigs
Irish-American fables of resistance
Eamonn Wall

depended on our bishop’s oversight, his remoteness from the day-​to-​day should have allowed him to understand and quickly root out evil; however, he thought it more important to protect the image of the Church than to do what was right. Richard P. McBrien begins his Caesar’s Coin: Religion and Politics in America with an excerpt from Lincoln’s ‘Gettysburg’s Address’ rather than a church homily or quote from the Bible: ‘Fourscore and seven years ago’, President Abraham Lincoln began, ‘our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Abstract only
Sarah Glynn

’, coined by the Communist Party at the time of the Great Depression, both actions are important and each supports the other. The Glynn 00_Tonra 01 19/06/2014 12:46 Page 3 INTRODUCTION act of uniting is a direct blow to racism and an indirect blow to a system that relies on racism. And the fight is not just against the latest motley bunch of would-be fascists. It is against racism per se, it is against racism as a tool for wider socioeconomic exploitation, and it is against a system that relies on that exploitation and on the promotion of racism. If, as argued in this

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End
Abstract only
The earliest recollections of Tua Di Ya Pek embodied
Fabian Graham

centimetres in diameter. Containing various ritual objects, its ‘eyes are opened’ at a temple’s inauguration. Inside, the bottom layer consists of incense ash either from the censer of the deities whose spirit soldiers it contains, or occasionally from a censer dedicated to the warrior deity the Emperor of the Dark Heavens who has the power to control the bamboo spirits. Five stylised Chinese coins ( gu tongqian / 古铜钱 ) are embedded in the ash, representing the four cardinal directions of the compass, with the central coin rooting a vertical axis connecting the Heaven

in Voices from the Underworld
Open Access (free)
Duncan Sayer

number of heirloom objects which were old when buried. This complexity is compounded because there are several different systems for artefact dating in use among early medieval scholars. Early Anglo-Saxon artefact typologies often include a mixture of local comparison, comparison with continental equivalents where coin-dating evidence might be available, and/or art-historical methods which are used particularly for the presence of Salin style I animal art, or the emergence of Salin Style II, which occurred around AD 560–70 (Lucy, 2000b : 16–20; Evison, 1987 ). Some

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries