The product of forty years of research by one of the foremost historians of Jacobitism, this book is a comprehensive revision of Professor Szechi’s popular 1994 survey of the Jacobite movement in the British Isles and Europe. Like the first edition, it is undergraduate-friendly, providing an enhanced chronology, a convenient introduction to the historiography and a narrative of the history of Jacobitism, alongside topics specifically designed to engage student interest. This includes Jacobitism as a uniting force among the pirates of the Caribbean and as a key element in sustaining Irish peasant resistance to English imperial rule. As the only comprehensive introduction to the field, the book will be essential reading for all those interested in early modern British and European politics.
spiritual. Those who fled to the Continent in 1688–9 and after were physically cut off from their roots, but formed a visible, essentially pan-European, community of exiles. Others fled (or judged it wise to move) as far afield as North America, the Caribbean, India and Madagascar, but never formed a specifically Jacobite community because they were too few in number. Those who remained in the British Isles ultimately experienced a diaspora too, but of the spiritual variety, when the movement disintegrated in the 1760s. Former Jacobites were left adrift in the wash and
, and Caribbean descent into museum culture and incorporating them into the new national formation of multicultural and cosmopolitan subjects; these exhibits are also charged with the job of educating white Britons on Britain’s multiculturality. For modern-day subjects, a visit to an exhibit is not necessarily “a surrogate for travel” as it once was for a generation of museum-goers; 16 indeed, many of these subjects are likely to have been born in or traveled to and from the places in the world that are represented in exhibits of the British Library.
Harold Cruse criticized West Indian immigrants for being conservative in thought and unable to understand the nature of American race relations. Winston James’s Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth Century America ( 1998 ) came to the opposite conclusion. In easily the most detailed study to date on West Indian immigration to the United States in this period, James was sharply critical of Cruse’s findings and praised the major contribution made by West Indian settlers to African American society. 34
The most famous West
undertook long journeys motivated by his evangelical work and desire to extend his own knowledge of human society in the conviction that the ‘light of the soul’ should be pursued with Bible reading but also through experience. During the months he spent in Barbados in 1671, the English preacher ‘discovered’ the cruelty of slavery, which he witnessed directly. The experience he had in the Caribbean islands was translated into the recommendations – quoted in the epigraph to this chapter – that Fox addressed to his followers, exhorting them to imagine themselves slaves in
the subject. 33
The study of the Jacobite exiles (i.e. the Jacobite diaspora) is another developing field of great importance. It is a huge subject, given the fact that Jacobites escaped to every corner of Europe and beyond, as far as the Indian Ocean and the Americas, in the aftermath of the Jacobite wars and risings in the British Isles. 34 Thousands of Jacobite prisoners of war were also transported as criminals to Britain’s colonies in America and the Caribbean. 35 Yet very little work has been done on this aspect of Jacobitism, probably because
Sun Mei (Sun Zhongshan’s elder brother), went to newly opened regions like Hawaii. The majority sojourned to or settled in Southeast Asian countries like Malaysia; they included Zheng Luosheng (Seng Lay Tay/Teh) and Chen Jiageng (Tan Kah Kee). 14 Some were taken forcibly to small British colonies like Trinidad in the Caribbean, while others took ships to Europe, some to the British Isles. The gradual abolition of slavery in the nineteenth century resulted in a shortage of labourers for the British colonies in the Americas. They had begun to take Chinese, either
majority of the remaining prisoners, including the ordinary soldiers, were scheduled for transportation for life to Britain’s American and Caribbean colonies, though it seems the king at least thought they were all going to go to the Caribbean plantations, which for indentured European labourers as much as for African slaves was almost as good as a death sentence. 43 The Commission for Forfeited Estates also went after the property of the English Jacobites with a will, and scored some notable successes with respect to the Catholic community in particular. For example
a crucial passage of dialogue between St John Rivers and Jane Eyre, heroine of the book of the same name (1847). The novel with which Charlotte Brontë won fame reworked many elements of the culture of the British empire, and the stories of the central characters referred back to events in the Caribbean plantations or the evangelisation of the Indian population. This episode was bringing out one of the most frequent themes in female literature set in the colonies, namely the participation of women in missionary work. St John River, a man driven by deep devotion
cultures and societies that have experienced European colonial domination in other parts of the world: for example, see the chapters on Brazil, the Caribbean, Africa, Hong Kong, the Middle East, and Ireland in Henry Schwarz and Sangeeta Ray, Postcolonial Studies. 11 Finally, one introductory text for postcolonial studies expands the definition even further, as ‘challenging and questioning the practices and consequences of domination and subordination’, which suggests that a much broader temporal and spatial remit may develop in the future. 12
One of the most powerful