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Abstract only
Stephen Snelders

247 Conclusion For Caribbean plantation economies to function and prosper, European colonizers needed Others –​African slaves. In Empire, Michael Hardt and Toni Negri write about this production of Others, the creation of racial boundaries, and the dark Other as the negative component of European identity as well as the economic foundation of European economic systems. They identify contagious diseases as one of the most important threats to the boundaries between self and Other. For Hardt and Negri, ‘The horror released by European conquest and colonization is

in Leprosy and colonialism
Stephen Snelders

be the name of the place in Africa where the disease had come from.3 By 1755, it was feared that boasie, quickly identified with leprosy, would spread from Africa via Suriname to Europe. African slaves were thought to carry the disease across the Atlantic to the Caribbean, where Europeans were then infected. Europeans could then in turn bring leprosy back to the Netherlands, where it had become extinct. To many observers, the health of the Dutch colonial and commercial empire was at stake. This chapter argues that to the colonial rulers, boasie or leprosy’s first

in Leprosy and colonialism
Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Abstract only
Stephen Snelders

leprosy had ceased to be endemic across most of Europe by the early modern period, in the mid-​eighteenth century Europeans encountered a disease they identified as leprosy in a completely new setting in another part of the globe among people of colour in Caribbean plantation colonies. From approximately 1750 onwards, leprosy or ‘boasie’ was seen by the Dutch rulers and Dutch colonial medicinal professionals in Suriname (the Dutch part of Guiana on the northern coast of South America), as an important danger to the slave population’s health, public hygiene, and colonial

in Leprosy and colonialism
Work as treatment in British West Indian lunatic asylums, 1860–1910
Leonard Smith

Indies, especially in the important colonies of Jamaica, British Guiana and Trinidad, which form the main focus of this chapter. The moral management system’s emphasis on work accorded well with imperial perceptions of the main roles of colonised peoples, particularly those who were not white. This clearly applied in the islands and other territories that comprised the British colonies in the West Indies, which had been forged through the capture, forced transportation, and enslavement of African people.6 Indeed, the whole rationale for the existence of the Caribbean

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Patrick Browne (c.1720–90), an Irish botanist and physician in the West Indies
Marc Caball

Indies. Moreover, it is also argued that Browne is culturally significant not just because of his Caribbean research. On his return to Ireland in 1770, Browne began work on a study of plants in Galway and Mayo listing their names in Latin, English and Irish. Browne’s experience provides a fascinating case study of a medical doctor raised within an Irish-speaking environment, educated on the continent and working as a physician and botanist in the West Indies. If Browne succeeded in incorporating knowledge of Gaelic

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine
Stephen Snelders

communities. When using Kleinman’s terminology to analyse multiple historical periods and societies, the terms ‘professional’ and ‘folk’ sector need to be treated with some degree of scepticism. Many folk healers are as ‘professional’ as their ‘professional’ counterparts. Yet, Afro-​ Surinamese healthcare activities were to some extent declared illegal by the colonial rulers, especially their religious and magical activities, which Europeans feared. Nonetheless, in Suriname, as elsewhere in the Caribbean, enslaved Africans became agents of their own medical care and

in Leprosy and colonialism
Reorganizing leprosy care, 1890– 1900
Stephen Snelders

first signs of a renewed interest in leprosy care in Suriname appeared in 1891. In February, the Governor Jonkheer (esquire) Maurits de Savornin Lohman sent one of his military medical officers, O. A. Peters, on a journey to the British Caribbean colonies Guiana 14 144 Leprosy and colonialism and Trinidad. Peters was to investigate the state of the art of leprosy care in those two countries.3 For almost twenty years, leprosy had not been a major topic of public discussion or government attention in Suriname. De Savornin Lohman’s motivation to send Peters on the

in Leprosy and colonialism
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30
Winifred C. Connerton

represented America in so many different ways. US international expansion was not limited to the Caribbean and Pacific territories obtained in the Spanish–American War. In fact, the US population was ambivalent over the benefit of colonial occupation, as was the government, and most territories were released to their own management shortly after the conclusion of the Second World War.48 Despite the decline in US colonial presence, the US influence continued to spread through charitable aid and benevolence organisations. Ian Tyrrell suggests this was a distinctly American

in Colonial caring