This collection of lively biographical essays examines historical and contemporary Pan-Africanism as an ideology of emancipation and unity. The volume covers thirty-six major figures, including well-known Pan-Africanists such as W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Amy Ashwood Garvey, C.L.R. James, George Padmore, Kwame Nkrumah, Frantz Fanon, Steve Biko, and Thabo Mbeki, as well as popular figures not typically identified with mainstream Pan-Africanism such as Maya Angelou, Mariama Bâ, Buchi Emecheta, Miriam Makeba, Ruth First, Wangari Maathai, Wole Soyinka, Derek Walcott, V.Y. Mudimbe, Léopold Senghor, Malcolm X, Bob Marley, and Fela Anikulapo-Kuti. The book explores the history and pioneers of the movement; the quest for reparations; politicians; poets; activists; as well as Pan-Africanism in the social sciences, philosophy, literature, and its musical activists. With contributions from a diverse and prominent group of African, Caribbean, and African-American scholars, The Pan-African Pantheon is a comprehensive and diverse introductory reader for specialists and general readers alike.
Second World War to employ Caribbean peoples in public services like health and transport. Others arrived to study, or to escape political and economic difficulties in their native lands. Some followed family members who migrated before them. As a consequence, today many contemporary European nations can boast a wide variety of diaspora communities that may trace connections to locations such as Australia, Africa, South Asia, the Caribbean, China or Sri Lanka.
For reasons of focus, the bulk of this chapter will deal with examples from the British experience of
The product of forty years of research by one of the foremost historians of Jacobitism, this book is a comprehensive revision of Professor Szechi’s popular 1994 survey of the Jacobite movement in the British Isles and Europe. Like the first edition, it is undergraduate-friendly, providing an enhanced chronology, a convenient introduction to the historiography and a narrative of the history of Jacobitism, alongside topics specifically designed to engage student interest. This includes Jacobitism as a uniting force among the pirates of the Caribbean and as a key element in sustaining Irish peasant resistance to English imperial rule. As the only comprehensive introduction to the field, the book will be essential reading for all those interested in early modern British and European politics.
founded by a Baptist minister specially for dark-complexioned girls who were not accepted into other secondary schools. This was a reflection of the structured “colourism” that affected Jamaica and other parts of the Caribbean at that time and continues, to a lesser extent, today.
From very early on, Amy showed tremendous intellect and an extraordinary inclination to articulate her opinions. By the time of her Westwood years, according to Amy’s later recollection, she was already beginning to manifest the social consciousness and rebellion
decision to make San Juan a crossroads for
the meeting of the best printmakers from Latin America and the
Caribbean. In tandem with the socio-political urgency of the 1960s
and 1970s, the stimulus that led to the setting up of the San Juan
Biennial was also triggered by the desire to provide Puerto Rican
and Latin American artists with a forum for technical and conceptual
spiritual. Those who fled to the Continent in 1688–9 and after were physically cut off from their roots, but formed a visible, essentially pan-European, community of exiles. Others fled (or judged it wise to move) as far afield as North America, the Caribbean, India and Madagascar, but never formed a specifically Jacobite community because they were too few in number. Those who remained in the British Isles ultimately experienced a diaspora too, but of the spiritual variety, when the movement disintegrated in the 1760s. Former Jacobites were left adrift in the wash and
Global Africa, Reparations, and the End of Pan-Africanism
discourses that served to hold the “Motherland” aloft against the denigration of European colonisation and chattel brutalisation. “All Haitians are black,” President Jean-Jacques Dessalines wrote into the 1805 national independence constitution. All black people, the constitution further provided, were free; and all black people who arrived in Haiti as maroons and runaways would not only be free, but legally empowered with automatic citizenship. This constitutional posture served to enshrine a Pan-African vision into the realpolitik of Caribbean nationhood, and established
while we sat under a tree’ (in Caribbean Women Writers , ed. Selwyn Cudjoe, Calaloux, 1990). The teaching of English literature in the colonies has been understood by some critics as one of the many ways in which Western colonial powers such as Britain asserted their cultural and moral superiority while at the same time devaluing indigenous cultural products. The image of Jamaica Kincaid sitting under her tree in Antigua encountering a series of texts that ostensibly concern British locations, culture and history is a striking example of the ways in which many of
been devastated by poverty.” 34
Mbeki promoted his vision of an African Renaissance at the University of Havana, Cuba, in March 2001. He began by noting that similar racist stereotypes were applied to Latin American and Caribbean citizens, as applied to Africa: “dark-skinned, quick-tempered, emotional, unimaginative, unintelligent, dishonest and inefficient.” He then went on to call for self-definition and autonomy, challenging his audience: “…we have a duty to define ourselves. We speak about the need for the African Renaissance in part
experience of decolonisation when several national liberation movements, particularly in Africa, parts of the Caribbean and South Asia, confronted a series of often insoluble problems once formal independence was achieved. As Bruce King argues,
[w]here the end of the Second World War brought a demand for national political independence to the forefront as a solution to the problems of the colonies, this was soon found to be an unrealistic hope as many new nations became divided by civil war and micro-nationalisms … or failed to develop economically or to offer social